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FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON EL DIAGNóSTICO DE LA TUBERCULOSIS MEDIANTE LA PRUEBA CHI-CUADRADO PARA BOGOTá (COLOMBIA) / FACTORS RELATED TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS BY CHI-SQUARE TEST FOR BOGOTA (COLOMBIA)  [cached]
Liliana María Pantoja-Rojas
Ingeniería Industrial , 2012,
Abstract: A la luz del “Plan estratégico Colombia libre de tuberculosis 2006-2015”, se identificaron factores relevantes de tipo demográficos, ambientales y sociales; que inciden sobre las condiciones de transmisión de la tuberculosis. Los datos obtenidos del Sistema de Vigilancia de Salud Pública (SIVIGILA) de la ciudad de Bogotá, se analizaron mediante la construcción de tablas de contingencia y de la asociación de las variables cualitativas mediante la prueba chi-cuadrado; todo ello con el fin de definir un diagnóstico temprano de la tuberculosis y el inicio oportuno del tratamiento, debido a que ésta es una de las enfermedades más infecciosas en el mundo y ha resurgido especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo. Al ser Bogotá la ciudad en Colombia que recibe el mayor número de habitantes por condiciones de desplazamiento, búsqueda de oportunidades de trabajo y mejores condiciones de vida, entre otros; se hace importante y prioritaria la atención de dicha enfermedad.AbstractIn the light of the "Strategic Plan Colombia free of Tuberculosis 2006-2015”, relevant factors were identified, such as demographic, environmental and social factors, that affect the conditions of transmission of tuberculosis. The data obtained from the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of Bogota city, were analyzed by the construction of contingency tables and the association of qualitative variables, using the chi-square test; in order to define an early diagnosis of tuberculosis and a timely initiation of the treatment, since this is one of the most infectious diseases in the world and has emerged, especially, in developing countries. The attention of this disease must be a high priority for Bogota city in Colombia, taking into account that it receives the greatest number of people per shift conditions, search of job opportunities and better living conditions, among others.
Proceso Salud-Enfermedad construido en torno a la Tuberculosis: un caso en Bogotá (Colombia)
Mu?oz Sánchez,Alba Idaly; Rubiano Mesa,Yurian Lida;
Index de Enfermería , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1132-12962011000300004
Abstract: the health-disease process (pse) is a category for understanding individual, collective and social attitudes against a given phenomenon, being important in its approach. this article describes the category "pse" that emerged from the viewpoint of the carriers of tuberculosis from a study conducted at bogotan locality (colombia). using a qualitative hermeneutic approach we interviewed in depth ten individuals had been carriers of tuberculosis and who had completed their treatment successfully. the results show the meanings of tuberculosis as feelings of fear and pain, and perceived as a disease of the "poverty". the stigma permeated the previous category, manifesting itself in all spheres of life of the carriers. the stigma of the disease became a limiting factor for seeking timely medical care and the actions identified in the supervised strategy for tuberculosis control.
Medición e interpretación de vibraciones producidas por el tráfico en Bogotá D.C. Measurement and interpretation of vibrations produced by the traffic in Bogota D.C.  [cached]
Hermes Vacca Gámez,Jorge Alberto Rodríguez,Daniel Ruiz Valencia
Revista ingeniería de construcción , 2011,
Abstract: Debido al desarrollo de Bogotá (ciudad principal de Colombia) y a su incremento de población, se han construido en la última década sistemas de transporte. A pesar de que estos sistemas incrementan el bienestar de los ciudadanos, el tráfico vehicular podría generar problemas de vibraciones. Estas vibraciones afectarían negativamente a las personas y a las edificaciones cercanas. Estos efectos pueden ser importantes si se presentan altos niveles de amplitud de las vibraciones. Estas vibraciones, dependen, entre otros aspectos, de las características mecánicas de los suelos. Teniendo en cuenta los planes futuros de construcción de sistemas transporte en Bogotá, se registraron vibraciones de tráfico vehicular y ferroviario en 6 sitios de Bogotá. En estos lugares se identificaron suelos típicos del estudio de microzonificación sísmica. Se hicieron mediciones para registrar las vibraciones debidas al tren de la sabana, Transmilenio (buses articulados) y servicio público principalmente. Se determinaron curvas de atenuación en aceleración y velocidad. Se determinó que para las condiciones actuales las vibraciones pueden llegar a ser molestas para las personas pero no generan problemas a las estructuras. No obstante, estos valores deben tomarse como punto de referencia de mediciones futuras cuando se incremente el tráfico, el peso de los vehículos (metro) y las velocidades de circulación. Due to the development of Bogota (main city of Colombia) and to its increase of population, transport systems have been constructed in the last decade. Although these systems increase the well-being of the citizens, the traffic could generate vibrations problems. These vibrations could affect the people and the constructions near to highways. These effects can be important for high levels of vibrations. These vibrations, depend, among others aspects, of the mechanical characteristics of the soils. Considering the future plans of construction of transportation systems in Bogota, vibrations due to traffic and railroad in 6 sites of Bogota were registered. In this places were indentified typical soils of the seismic microzoning of Bogota. Measurements were made to register the vibrations due to the train of the savannah, Transmilenio (articulated buses) and public transport mainly. With this information curves of attenuation of acceleration and speed were determined. The actual vibrations levels are perceived by the people but they do not cause problems to the buildings. However, these vibration levels are the datum point of future measurements when increase the traffic, the weig
Symposium on the Philosophy of Chemistry, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia, 21-23 July 2009 (report)
Andrés Bernal,Guillermo Restrepo,José L. Villaveces
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: report of Symposium on the Philosophy of Chemistry, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia, 21-23 July 2009
Frequency of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV infected patients from Bogota, Colombia
Martha I Murcia-Aranguren, Jorge E Gómez-Marin, Fernando S Alvarado, José G Bustillo, Ellen de Mendivelson, Bertha Gómez, Clara I León, William A Triana, Erwing A Vargas, Edgar Rodríguez
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-1-21
Abstract: Patients who attended the three major HIV/AIDS healthcare centres in Bogota were prospectively studied over a six month period. A total of 286 patients were enrolled, 20% of them were hospitalized at some point during the study. Sixty four percent (64%) were classified as stage C, 25% as stage B, and 11% as stage A (CDC staging system, 1993). A total of 1,622 clinical samples (mostly paired samples of blood, sputum, stool, and urine) were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and culture.Overall 43 of 1,622 cultures (2.6%) were positive for mycobacteria. Twenty-two sputum samples were positive. Four patients were diagnosed with M. tuberculosis (1.4%). All isolates of M. tuberculosis were sensitive to common anti-tuberculous drugs. M. avium was isolated in thirteen patients (4.5%), but only in three of them the cultures originated from blood. The other isolates were obtained from stool, urine or sputum samples. In three cases, direct AFB smears of blood were positive. Two patients presented simultaneously with M. tuberculosis and M. avium.Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium infections are frequent in HIV infected patients in Bogota. The diagnostic sensitivity for infection with tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria can be increased when diverse body fluids are processed from each patient.Mycobacterium infections are frequent opportunistic pathogens associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its relative virulence and potential for person-to-person transmission distinguishes Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are particularly susceptible to tuberculosis, either by the reactivation of latent infection or by a primary infection with rapid progression to active disease [1-4]. The annual incidence rate of tuberculosis in Colombia during 1998 was 19.6 per 100,000 persons [5], but rates 1,000-fold higher have been reported in some HIV-seropositive populations [6-14]. In addition, disseminated i
Factores relacionados con el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis mediante la prueba Chi-cuadrado para Bogotá (Colombia)
Pantoja-Rojas,Liliana María; Roa-Vargas,Edna Margarita;
Ingenier?-a Industrial , 2012,
Abstract: in the light of the "strategic plan colombia free of tuberculosis 2006-2015", relevant factors were identified, such as demographic, environmental and social factors, that affect the conditions of transmission of tuberculosis. the data obtained from the public health surveillance system (sivigila) of bogota city, were analyzed by the construction of contingency tables and the association of qualitative variables, using the chi-square test; in order to define an early diagnosis of tuberculosis and a timely initiation of the treatment, since this is one of the most infectious diseases in the world and has emerged, especially, in developing countries. the attention of this disease must be a high priority for bogota city in colombia, taking into account that it receives the greatest number of people per shift conditions, search of job opportunities and better living conditions, among others.
Trips del suborden Terebrantia (Insecta: Thysanoptera) en la Sabana de Bogota Thrips of the suborder Terebrantia (Insecta: Thysanoptera) from the Bogota plateau  [cached]
CLAUDIA LILIANA CALIXTO ALVAREZ
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2005,
Abstract: Se realizo un reconocimiento de las especies pertenecientes al suborden Terebrantia presentes en la Sabana de Bogota. Los insectos se colectaron en campo y fueron llevados al laboratorio donde se identificaron hasta el nivel de especie. Se obtuvo un listado de las especies encontradas en la Sabana. incluyendo nuevos registros de trips para Colombia, nuevos registros altitudinales y algunas observaciones biologicas. Tambien se mencionan nuevos registros de plantas asociadas a diferentes especies de trips. Se identificaron 79 especies distribuidas en 23 generos y tres familias para la Sabana de Bogota, de los anteriores. el 43% son nuevos registros para Colombia. An inventory was conducted of the species pertaining to the suborder Terebrantia present in the Bogota plateau. The insects were collected in the field and taken to the laboratory for identification to species. A list was made of the species found in the Bogota plateau, including new records for Colombia, new altitude records, and some biological observations. New records of plant associations with different Thrips species are also mentioned. Seventy-nine species distributed in 23 genera and three families were identified for the Bogota plateau: of these. 43% are new records for Colombia.
Tuberculosis en Colombia: análisis de la situación epidemiológica, a o 2006 Epidemiologic situation of tuberculosis in Colombia, 2006  [cached]
César Augusto Castiblanco,Claudia Llerena Polo
Infectio , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivo. Evaluar la situación de la tuberculosis en Colombia en el a o 2006, con el fin de identificar su comportamiento, los avances en su control durante los últimos a os y reconocer retos y acciones por priorizar en los próximos a os a la luz del plan mundial “Alto a la tuberculosis” y el plan estratégico “Colombia libre de tuberculosis 2006-2015”. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó mediante metodología descriptiva la información reportada al Sivigila y al Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis durante el 2006; se analizó la incidencia de tuberculosis según: porcentaje de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI), raza, sexo y edad; y la coinfección tuberculosis/VIH. Resultados. En el 2006 se reportaron 10.696 casos nuevos de tuberculosis; la disminución en la incidencia se asocia principalmente a baja captación, aunque hay aumento de la forma extrapulmonar desde 1999 (r2=0,59) y la tuberculosis pulmonar infantil (6%); en los departamentos con el quintil más alto de NBI hay 1,8 veces más riesgo de enfermar que en aquéllos con el quintil más bajo de NBI; los indígenas y los afrocolombianos tienen el doble riesgo de enfermar con respecto al resto de la población; la coinfección tuberculosis/VIH fue de 5,8% en el 2006 y la curación fue de 78,9%. Discusión. La incidencia de tuberculosis está marcada por aspectos políticos, normativos, captación de sintomáticos respiratorios y cumplimiento de normas (como la baciloscopia seriada y el uso de cultivos); la coinfección tuberculosis/VIH tiene un papel importante en la presentación de la forma extrapulmonar. El seguimiento de casos ha mejorado; en el 2006 se evalúo el 90% de los casos registrados en el 2005, frente a 19% del a o 2000. Objective: To evaluate the tuberculosis situation in Colombia in 2006. To identifying tuberculosis present behavior, control advances during the last years and to acknowledge goals and actions to set priorities in the following years under the context of the global plan to stop tuberculosis and the strategic plan “Colombia free of tuberculosis, 2006-2015”. Materials and methods: Information reported to SIVIGILA and to the National Tuberculosis Program during 2006 was analyzed by descriptive methodology; tuberculosis incidence was analyzed according to percentage of unsatisfied basic need (UBN), ethnic group, gender, age, and TB/HIV co-infection. Outcomes: Colombia reported 10,696 new cases in 2006; incidence decrease is related mainly to low detection, however, there is an increase in extrapulmonary tuberculosis since 1999 (r2=0.59) and child pulmonary tuberculosis (6%). In the departmen
El sector de San Victorino en los procesos de reconfiguración urbana de Bogotá (1598-1998) The Area of San Victorino in the Processes of Urban Reconfiguration of Bogota (1598-1998) O lugar de San Victorino nos processos de mudan a urbana na cidade de Bogotá (1598-1998)  [PDF]
Carlos Martín Carbonell Higuera
Cuadernos de Vivienda y Urbanismo , 2010,
Abstract: Resumen El sector de San Victorino ha sido uno de los escenarios urbanos más importantes y significativos en la historia de Bogotá, capital de Colombia. A lo largo de diversas etapas históricas, ha adquirido múltiples formas y funciones que le han otorgado su carácter y su identidad; sin embargo, debido a su condición de “zona de frontera”, de “territorio de umbral”, de puerto y puerta de la ciudad antigua y del Centro Histórico de la ciudad moderna, San Victorino es un entorno urbano marcado por sus encrucijadas y contrastes, reflejados en el espacio construido y los actores sociales. Esta indagación toma como punto de partida una exploración en antropología urbana que procura ahondar en las dinámicas socioculturales ocurridas en el sector desde una perspectiva de larga duración, a raíz de los conflictos generados por los usos de este espacio urbano a finales del siglo xx. Abstract The area of San Victorino has been one of the most important and significant urban scenarios in Bogota’s (Colombia) history. Through many historical periods, it has acquired numerous forms and functions, which have given it its character and identity; however, due to its circumstance as a “border zone”, as a “threshold area”, as port and door to the old city and the Historic Downtown of the modern city, San Victorino is an urban environment marked by its crossroads and contrasts, reflected in its built area and social actors. This research takes as a point of departure an exploration in urban anthropology which seeks to delve deep into the sociocultural dynamics occurred in this area from a long term perspective, resulting from the conflicts generated by the exploitation of this urban space towards the end of the 20th century. Resumo O setor de San Victorino tem sido um dos cenários urbanos mais importantes e significativos na história de Bogotá, capital da Col mbia. Ao longo de diversas etapas históricas, tem adquirido múltiplas formas e fun es que lhe deram suas características e sua identidade; porém, devido a sua condi o de “regi o fronteiri a”, de “território limiar”, de porto e de porta da cidade antiga e do Centro Histórico da cidade moderna, San Victorino é um entorno urbano marcado por suas encruzilhadas e contrastes, refletidos no espa o construído e nos atores sociais. Esta pesquisa toma como ponto de partida uma explora o na antropologia urbana que procura aprofundarse nas dinamicas sócio-culturais ocorridas no setor desde uma perspectiva de longa dura o, em conseqüência dos conflitos gerados pelos usos deste espa o urbano no fim do século XX.
The academic impact of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Faculty of Engineering on the Bogota campus Impacto académico de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Bogotá  [cached]
Bogoya M. Daniel
Ingeniería e Investigación , 2011,
Abstract: An analysis regarding the quality of higher education programmes in Colombia is presented by comparing students’ scores from a given institution on the ECAES 2009 test to students’ performance throughout the country. The analysis uses the value-added concept as applied to the academic world, this being obtained by using a regression model to ascertain the difference between the students’ scores from a given faculty programme and the corresponding scores for students throughout Colombia; the higher education admission test was used to control initial results with results achieved by the same individuals on this test., A case study was proposed to illustrate the methodology by considering the Faculty of Engineering programmes at the Universidad Nacional in Bogota. Two different approaches were followed; the first used the generated function between SABER 11 and ECAES test scores and the second added institutional results by using the mean of the scores. The aforementioned Faculty of Engineering ratifies its relevance and importance as all its programmes come within the greater academic value-added area. Se propone un análisis sobre la calidad de los programas de educación superior de Colombia, comparando los puntajes obtenidos por los estudiantes de una institución en la prueba Ecaes del a o 2009, frente a los desempe os de los demás estudiantes del país. El análisis emplea el concepto de valor académico agregado, que se evalúa en función de la diferencia resultante entre el puntaje obtenido por los estudiantes de un determinado programa y el respectivo puntaje hallado por regresión para los demás estudiantes del país, controlando la condición inicial mediante el resultado alcanzado por los mismos individuos en la prueba de ingreso a la educación superior. Para ilustrar la metodología se toman los programas de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional en Bogotá como caso de estudio, y se presentan dos caminos: primero, siguiendo la función generada entre los puntajes de las pruebas Saber 11 y Ecaes, en el ámbito del estudiante; y segundo, haciendo una síntesis por programa con los promedios de puntajes, en el ámbito de la institución. La Facultad de Ingeniería mencionada confirma su relevancia y trascendencia, porque todos sus programas se localizan en la zona de mayor valor académico agregado.
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