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Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection by Urine PCR Analysis Compared to Wet Mount Microscopic Screening
B. Kazemi,F. Yasaee,M. Bandehpour,N. Seyed
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: This study was conducted for parasite detection in urine samples using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and comparing the results to wet mount microscopic screening. For this, 155 urine samples were collected from symptomatic women suspected to trichomoniasis (mean age = 20 5 year) introduced to laboratory by physician. Urine samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite`s genome. As a result 25 out of 155 samples (16%) were detected positive by direct microscopic observation, but 75 out of 155 (48%) by PCR. Eighty out of 155 samples (52%) were detected negative by PCR. This study confirmed that the microscopic screening with a low sensitivity must be substituted by highly sensitive screening methods such as PCR.
Comparison of RIFLE with and without urine output criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a task still not concluded!
José Lopes, Sofia Jorge
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc11911
Abstract: Ameen Abu-Hanna, Kama A Wlodzimirow, Marcus Schultz and Catherine SC BoumanWe agree with Lopes and Jorge that multivariate analysis should be attempted when testing whether RIFLESCr is associated with higher mortality than RIFLESCr+UO. Essentially the question is whether the group (hereafter G1) of patients with AKI based on the RIFLESCr criteria (regardless of UO) is at higher risk of death than the group (hereafter G2) classified as having AKI based on the UO criteria only. Additional analysis, not reported in [1], shows that out of admission type, age, gender, weight, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and length of stay, only SAPS was a confounder. Before adjustment for SAPS, patients in G1 had 1.64 times the odds of dying than those in G2. After adjustment for SAPS, the OR was reduced to 1.45 (P = 0.0004), still confirming our findings, which are in agreement with those of the other study [3].The seeming contradiction between our findings and those of Lopes and colleagues [4] is easily explained by the significant differences in case mix. In our study, 48.6% of the RIFLESCr+UO AKI patients were classified as having AKI on the basis of the UO criteria only [1] versus 5.6% in the study by Lopes and colleagues [4]. Differences in case mix may be attributable to the different inclusion criteria, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-based estimation of baseline SCr in all patients in the previous study [4], which may overestimate AKI based on SCr [5], and the outcome definition. All of these are important factors to consider when comparing studies.AKI: acute kidney injury; AUROC: area under the receiver operator characteristic; OR: odds ratio; RIFLE: Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage renal disease; RIFLESCr: RIFLE criteria based on the serum creatinine criteria only; RIFLESCr+OU: RIFLE criteria based on serum creatinine and urine output criteria; SAPS: S
Muhammad Saeed
The Professional Medical Journal , 1994,
Abstract: Urine examination includes physical and microscopic examination of the received sample. Every part ofexamination has its own significance which has been separately elaborated in this article. Collections ofthe urine sample and its storage (if required) are some times overlooked which has also been discussed.Improper collection and storage can spoil all the subsequent efforts to get the reliable results fromurinalysis.
The Role of Urine Investigations in Urology Practice  [PDF]
Muhammad Ujudud Musa
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2015.54012
Abstract: Urine examination is one of the important armamentarium in the practice of urology and it is a fundamental test that is usually carried out for urology patients, it can be as simple as dipstick analysis to a complex hormonal assays. Urine examination is done worldwide as an extension of physical examination which provides a lot of information about the pathology, and both physical and chemical analysis of urine are highly informative. There are several types of urine investigations, some of which include urinalysis, urine microscopy culture and sensitivity, urine microscopy for ova or cyst of parasites, urine cytology, urine tumour antigens assays, urine hormonal assays, urine toxicology, urine quantitative measurement and urine acid fast bacilli. Uses of urine examinations in urology could be diagnostic, such as renal function test, evaluation of heamaturia, stone diseases, urinary tract infections, urologic cancers and infertility or monitoring and for prognosis. Uses of urine investigations in practice of urology cannot be over emphasized as it has many revealing information of the physiology and pathology of urologic organs.
P. Ayazi M. M. Daneshi
Acta Medica Iranica , 2007,
Abstract: Urine dipstick is a useful and commonly used test because of its rapidity and low cost; however its diagnostic accuracy is debatable. This research were carried out To determine sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of Nitrite (NIT) and Leukocyte Esterase (LE) testing in relation to urine culture. This research was conducted on 100 hospitalized patients with clinical signs and symptoms compatible with urinary tract infections (UTI). Urine culture and dipstick tests were carried out on urine samples of all patients. Urinalysis LE and NIT studies were performed in fresh and uncentrifuged urine by using a manual urine analyzer (rapignost, Co. Marburg, Germany). The urine culture was considered as gold standard. Urine cultures were positive in 75 (75%) patients. Dipstick tests of urine were positive in 79(79%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Dipstick test were 76%, 12%, 72% and 14% respectively. Although dipstick test of LE and NIT can avoid a large part of the cost incurred by urine culture, any method of urine screen (LE and NIT) shouldn't be substituted for a urine culture in the symptomatic patients in childhood.
Abraham Paniagua Vázquez
Prisma Social , 2012,
Abstract: A partir de enero del 2008 y hasta la fecha Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, ha estado inmersa en la llamada “Guerra contra el narcotráfico”, hecho que ha desatado la peor crisis de inseguridad pública en la historia de la localidad. En medio del caos social, se ha presentado un fenómeno interesante: el discurso como herramienta de poder utilizado entre los actores inmiscuidos en el tema. El discurso en forma de “narcomantas”, desplegados, declaraciones y la utilización de tecnologías de la información han servido como medio para justificar acciones, clamar solución y reivindicar exigencias. Ante este escenario, la presente propuesta tiene como objetivo intentar el análisis crítico del discurso utilizado por los actores que participan en medio de la cruenta batalla contra el narcotráfico y entre bandas criminales inmiscuidas.
Wonder en wet  [cached]
H. G. Stoker
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1955, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v23i2.1862
Abstract: Ons noem mens, plant, dier, stof en energie en ook eienskappe, kwaliteite, funksies, oorsake, handelinge, ens. dinge”.1 Wet veronderstel eerstens dinge” met hul relasies.
The Human Urine Metabolome  [PDF]
Souhaila Bouatra, Farid Aziat, Rupasri Mandal, An Chi Guo, Michael R. Wilson, Craig Knox, Trent C. Bjorndahl, Ramanarayan Krishnamurthy, Fozia Saleem, Philip Liu, Zerihun T. Dame, Jenna Poelzer, Jessica Huynh, Faizath S. Yallou, Nick Psychogios, Edison Dong, Ralf Bogumil, Cornelia Roehring, David S. Wishart
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073076
Abstract: Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca.
Comparison of the Levels of Five Heavy Metals in Human Urine and Sweat after Strenuous Exercise by ICP-MS  [PDF]
Shengxiang Tang, Xinzhe Yu, Cinan Wu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42022

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the levels of trace heavy metals in human urine and sweat, to compare the performance of ICP-MS using three sample processing methods, namely direct dilution, wet digestion, and microwave digestion. The results showed that the wet digestion ICP-MS method has the highest accuracy (relative standard deviation ≤10%) and is more useful for measuring the levels of trace heavy metals in urine and sweat. Hence, we used this method to compare the levels of the five trace heavy metals, namely chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead, in the urine and sweat of adults after strenuous exercise. The results showed that the levels of these five trace heavy metals in sweat were significantly higher than those in urine after strenuous exercise (The differences between the measurements in urine and those in sweat were significant P ≤ 0.01). The results suggested that exercise-induced sweating can effectively remove the harmful heavy metals from the human body.

Thin layer chromatography of camel urine
Tarig Hab,,Samia H. A,,Baragob A. E. A,Khojali S. M. E
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.
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