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Epidemiological investigation and analysis of allergic rhinitis in troops stationed in Xuzhou  [cached]
Zhi-qiang YAN,Bing SHAN,Bao-jian XU,Shao-hui WANG
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2012,
Abstract: Objective To investigate the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis (AR) in troops stationed in Xuzhou, and analyze its associated risk factors and influence on sleep patterns, life quality, and training of officers and soldiers. Methods A randomly chosen sample of 1030 servicemen stationed in Xuzhou from March to April 2011 served as the subjects of this study. The study was conducted in two phases. First, a questionnaire survey was undertaken. Then those subjects suspected to have AR, discovered through the questionnaire results, were finally diagnosed by clinical examination. Results 1052 questionnaires were issued, and 1030 questionnaires were returned and deemed valid. The overall incidence of AR in troops stationed in Xuzhou was 17.1%. The incidence in male and female was 17.0% and 18.8%, respectively, and there was no significant difference (P=0.731). Bronchial asthma and other allergic diseases, along with family history, were closely related to the occurrence of AR. Therefore they were identified to be the important risk factors for AR (OR=0.967, P=0.001; OR=2.098, P < 0.001). Approximately 44.9% of the patients felt that AR affected their sleep, whereas 75.6% felt the condition affected their life quality and training. Conclusions There is a higher prevalence of AR in troops stationed in Xuzhou. Family history, other allergic diseases are found to be related to increased risk of AR, and there is a significant impact on quality of life, training and rest of soldiers. Reasonable control of AR has important military value and significance.
The prevalence of reflux esophagitis and Helicobacter pylori infection in troops stationed in southern China  [cached]
Wen WANG,Hui-jun ZHUANG,Xu-de SHEN,Rong WANG
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To assess the prevalence of reflux esophagitis(RE) in troops stationed in southern China,and explore the relationship between RE incidence and Helicobacter pylori(Hp) infection.Methods Ninety-one confirmed gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD) patients were selected,with lower score in 47,(Sc: 12-15),moderate score(Sc: 16-20) in 34,and high score(Sc > 20) in 10.Sixty non-GERD servicemen with Sc < 12 served as control group by stratified random sampling method.All the 151 subjects underwent gastroscopy.Hp infection was detected by 14C urea breath test(14C-UBT) and rapid urease test(RUT).Hp infection was confirmed by the positive results of the both tests.Results The diagnostic rate of RE was significantly higher in GERD group(42.9%,39/91) than in control group(3.3%,2/60,P < 0.05).No statistical difference in RE was found among those in different GERD scores(P > 0.05).In GERD group,thirty-nine RE patients were found with 22 cases in grade A,13 in grade B,3 in grade C and 1 in grade D.Of the 39 RE patients,35(89.7%) were in low grade(grade A and B).Eight patients(8.8%) in GERD group were found to suffered from Barrett’s syndrome.No significant correlation was shown between the degree of RE and GERD scores(r=0.276,P > 0.05).There were no significant difference in infection rate of Hp between the RE patients(59.0%,23/39) and those in control group(61.7%,37/60,P>0.05).Conclusions The prevalence of RE is high in troops stationed in southern China.No correlation is found between the rate of RE and Hp infection.
Police diplomacy
Keki? Dalibor,Subo?i? Dane
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0902141k
Abstract: Police diplomacy is one of the most interesting issues of the contemporary international relations. Sources of this issue comes at the beginning of XX century. Organized criminal and terrorism influenced on appearance of international police cooperation at the end of XIX century. Police cooperation has enlarged last years. Termins police attaché and liason officer are used for the same purpose, but there are four key distinctions between them.
Allergic rhinitis  [cached]
Small Peter,Kim Harold
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-7-s1-s3
Abstract: Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder.
Sense of security felt by the armed police with different service length and influential factors  [cached]
Jing CHEN,Tao ZOU,Hu-hai FU
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To investigate the status of sense of security felt by the armed police and the influential factors thereof.Methods The sense of security,stress level,comprehension of social supports and the coping styles were measured and evaluated by use of Security Questionnaire(SQ),Psychological Stress Self-Evaluation Test(PSET),Perceived Social Support Scale(PSSS) and Coping Style Scale(CSS) in 725 armed police,and the differences were compared between the servicemen with different service length(1,2 and 3 years).The correlation between security sense(expressed as personal safety and determination of control) and comprehension of social supports,coping styles and T score on stress level were analyzed.A stepwise regression analysis was done to screen the factors influencing the security sense of servicemen with the overall score of security sense as the dependent variable and the comprehension of social supports(expressed as inside-and outside-family support),coping styles(expressed as illusion,resignation,rationalization,self-condemned determinant,resort and problem-solving capacity) and T score on stress level as the independent variables.Results Compared with the armed police with 1 year of military service,those with 2 or 3 years of military service got lower scores in personal safety,determination of control,inside-and outside-family support,and resort and problem-solving capacity(P < 0.05),and got higher scores in T score on stress level,illusion,resignation,rationalization,and self-condemned determinant(P < 0.01),whereas no difference was found when compared with the soldiers with 2 years of service to those with 3 years of service(P > 0.05).The two factors of comprehension of social supports(inside-and outside-family support),and the two factors of coping styles(resort and problem-solving capacity) were positively correlated with the sense of security(personal safety and determination of control)(P < 0.001);while the four factors of coping styles(illusion,resignation,rationalization and self-condemned determinant) and the T score on stress level were negatively correlated with the sense of security(P < 0.001).It was proved by multivariate linear regression analysis that outside-family support,problems-solving capacity,resort and self-condemned determinant,resignation and stress level were the influential factors of servicemen security sense.Conclusion A several factors may influence the psychological security sense of armed police.It is important to give a directed psychological service aiming the different service length of the soldiers.
ALLERGIC RHINITIS
MUHAMMAD ZAHID RAFIQ GILL,SALAHUDDIN AYUBI
The Professional Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common ENT diseases in Faisalabad. The affects of topical steroids on nasalmucosal environment has not been studied reliably. Objectives: To see the affects of topical steroids on symptom score and mucociliaryclearance in Allergic Rhinitis. Rationale: To see whether symptom score change with change in mucociliary clearance after topical applicationof steroids. Study design: A quasi-experimental study. Setting: ENT Unit, Madina Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad ( a tertiary care hospital).Subjects: (sample, sampling technique): Non-probability convenience sampling. Fifty patients in total. Intervention: Saccharine with dye:india ink (Indigocarmine) application on anterior end of inferior turbinate to check mucociliary clearance. Methods (Main outcome measures):To assess change in mucociliary clearance time and symptom score (total as well as individual) before and after application of steroid at one,three and six months in patients having allergic rhinitis. Each nasal symptom was scored as zero to 3 on a severity scale (absent-mild-moderatesevere).Results: Patients were tested for nasal mucociliary clearance and symptom score before and after application of steroid. The resultsshowed statistically significant difference in these groups. Conclusions: 1.Topical steroids modify the nasal mucosal environment in terms ofmucociliary clearance and thus affects the patients quality of life in terms of allergic rhinitis symptom score 2. More long term follow up and widerstudies are required to study the definite affects of steroids on nasal mucosa.
Investigation of independent verification and validation of the servicemen occupational stress scale  [cached]
Jia XU,Wei DONG,Jin YAN
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2012,
Abstract: Objective  To examine the reliability and validity of the servicemen occupational stress scale. Methods  A survey with the servicemen occupational stress scale was carried out on 1100 randomly chosen military personnel in the army, and 106 among them also underwent examination with Chinese Military Mental Health Scale (CMMHS) at the same time. Results  The Cronbach's α coefficient of total scale was 0.929, and subscales were 0.731-0.857 (P<0.01); the half reliability of total scale was 0.932, and subscales were 0.465-0.881 (P<0.01). The correlation coefficients among factors and between factors and total scale score were 0.699-0.900 (P<0.01). The factors of the servicemen occupational stress scale showed a significant correlation with most factors of the CMMHS, the correlation coefficients were 0.186-0253. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis, it was showed that the scale of the entries in the collation and factors named were more reasonable. According to the results of confirmatory factor analysis, there was a higher degree of accordance between the sample data and the hypothesized structure of factors, with Chi-Square statistic equal to 8293.0, RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation) equal to 0.055, RMR (root mean square residual) equal to 0.031, TLI (Tucker-Lewis index), CFI (comparative fit index), IFI (incremental fit index) and GFI (goodness of fit index) 0.919, 0.926, 0.920, 0.915, respectively. Conclusion  The reliability and validity of the servicemen occupational stress scale meet the standards for scale designing.
The European Code of Police Ethics and Community Police
Tache Bocaniala
Acta Universitatis Danubius : Administratio , 2010,
Abstract: Democratic states are organized in order to guarantee individual freedoms and security of the citizens; the police perform the traditional functions of fighting, preventing and detecting crime,ensuring public order, respect for law and public order and protecting the fundamental rights of the individual, but also various social services, that support other activities. In the police activity there must respected the rights and freedoms of individual and avoid any arbitrary or unlawful reactions. Lately European countries have emphasized the reorganization process of the police in order to promote and strengthen the democratic values. An important step was the adoption of the European Code of Police Ethics aiming at implementing Community rules in the European Union and achieving greater unity between its members and building cooperation capacities in the fight against crime. Code of ethics and the deontology of the police officer, approved by G. D. no. 991/2005, are based on the principles of the European Code of Police Ethics.
Obstacles and possibilities in police research  [cached]
Ragnhild Sollund
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: Drawing on a Norwegian research project investigating the possible existence of police racism, this article explores challenges related to conducting research in such sensitive sites as the police with reference to methodological and institutional obstacles. The project featured participant observation, in-depth interviews with ethnic minority men, and in-depth interviews with police officers and lays the basis for a discussion of the diverging perspectives on police racism held by the police and by members of ethnic minorities. The degree to which research on the police can reveal the ‘truth’ of policing and thereby contribute to changing police practice is problematised and questions are asked about the extent to which research can contribute to facilitating change within the police that might be of benefit to the relationship between the police and ethnic minorities. A key question raised is whether the existence of a specific police culture, featuring loyalty, a hierarchical organisational structure and the use of discretion may prevent such research methods from revealing ‘true’ data, as well as organisational change. A discussion of problem-oriented policing illustrates some of the obstacles to implementing changes. The article concludes that the police in Oslo do not demonstrate evidence of institutional racism though there is evidence of derogatory language use and stereotyping where ethnic minorities are stereotyped in homologous ways to other marginalised groups who come into contact with the police such as drug users.
Diagnosing allergic rhinitis – is there a need?
G Davis
Continuing Medical Education , 2009,
Abstract: A definitive diagnosis of allergic rhinitis makes a difference to management.
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