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Investigating the Construct Validity of the FCE Reading Paper in Iranian EFL Context
Elahe Tavakoli,Hossein Barati
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.1.239-247
Abstract: Validity studies on language proficiency tests have attracted many researchers in the last decades. Most of such studies try to investigate skills assessed by the items in the tests, hence the construct validity of the test. The present study took the same approach and therefore aimed to investigate the construct validity of the reading paper of the First Certificate in English (FCE) in the Iranian EFL context. The research addressed the following three questions: (1) Do the majority of the Iranian EFL expert judges agree on the skills measured by the items in the FCE reading paper? (2) Do the majority of the Iranian EFL undergraduates come to agreement on the skills measured by the items in the FCE reading paper? (3) Does exploratory factor analysis support that the FCE reading paper assesses the same reading skills claimed by its developing board, i.e. UCLES, in the context of Iranian EFL undergraduates? The present study deployed triangulated approach in collecting and analyzing the data. It attempted to use both qualitative (i.e. experts’ and test takers’ judgment) and quantitative (i.e. Factor Analysis) approaches to address the above questions. The findings revealed that there was not a substantial agreement among expert judges on the skills claimed to be assessed by the items in the FCE reading paper nor could any significant agreement be observed amongst the test takers on the skills being measured by such items in the FCE reading paper. Finally, exploratory factor analysis revealed similar findings as those in the judgmental phase of the study. The individual items in the FCE reading paper did not confirm the claims by the test developers.
The Effect of Classical Music on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Students
Nasser Rashidi,Farman Faham
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.1.1.74-82
Abstract: The influence of music on language learning and performance has been the subject of study for many years. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of classical music (Mozart Sonata) on the reading comprehension performance of two groups of Iranian students in an English institute in Iran. To this end, the study compared two groups of Iranian English students (N=60) over a period of three months: one was taught reading comprehension with a music background and the other with no music background whatsoever. The results of the study showed a significant difference between the performance of the group exposed to music and the performance of the other group not exposed to music. The group taught reading comprehension with a music background outperformed the other taught it with no music background.
The Relationship Between Reading Self-efficacy Beliefs, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension Level of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Mahdieh Naseri,Elaheh Zaferanieh
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n2p64
Abstract: This co-relational study explored the relationship between reading self-efficacy beliefs, reading strategies use and reading comprehension level of Iranian EFL learners. In this study, Michigan reading comprehension test, a self-reported Reading Strategy Use Questionnaire, and a Reading Self-efficacy Questionnaire were administered to eighty Junior and Senior EFL students. The results of Spearman Correlation coefficient, descriptive statistics, and Canonical correlation indicated that a) there were significant strong positive correlation between reading self-efficacy beliefs and reading comprehension and also between reading self-efficacy beliefs and reading strategies use, b) the most frequent use of reading strategy was found to be cognitive strategy, followed by testing strategy, meta-cognitive strategy, and finally compensatory strategy, c) regarding the gender, the relationship between Reading Self-efficacy and Reading Strategies used by Iranian EFL senior and junior students made no difference.
The Effect of Vocabulary Size on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners
Sasan Baleghizadeh,Mohammad Golbin
LiBRI : Linguistic and Literary Broad Research and Innovation , 2010,
Abstract: A large number of variables influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage, one of which is vocabulary size. The studies which have focused on this seemingly important aspect, in some settings, are few and far between. This indicates the importance of running more research in this respect. The present study endeavored to examine this variable to discover its effect on reading comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. In so doing, 83 Iranian first-year university students (22 males and 61 females) were given a vocabulary size test (Nation 1990) and a reading comprehension test (TOEFL version 2004). The results showed a very significant correlation between vocabulary size and reading comprehension (r = .84, p < .05), which points out the necessity of improving the learners' vocabulary size in coping with reading passages. However, the high correlation found in this study calls for more replications to add to the precision of such a relationship. Keywords: vocabulary size, reading comprehension, Iranian EFL learners.
The Effect of Setting Reading Goals on the Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Akbar Hesabi,Saeed Ketabi,Abbas Eslami Rasekh,Shahnaz Kazemi
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.4.929-933
Abstract: This study investigates the effects of setting reading goals on the vocabulary retention of Iranian EFL readers. The aim is to find out which type of goals can be more influential on vocabulary retention. The population includes 120 students, 16 to 18 years old, and all female at Iranian junior high schools. Out of them 60 homogenized students were selected through administering one Nelson Proficiency Test (2001). They were divided to four groups of 15 students, three groups with different reading goals and a control group. After the treatment, a vocabulary post test was administered for all groups after two weeks. Then an ANOVA used to analyze the results of the tests. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with different goals and the control group. The findings suggested that setting reading goals has a positive effect on vocabulary retention of teaching and pleasure groups and negative effect on taking test group.
The Effect of Using Instructional Conversation Method on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Nader Assadi Aidinlou,Shafagh Tabeei
International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The present study mainly focused on the impact of Instructional Conversation (IC) method on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate high school learners. To accomplish the study,71 high school learners studying English. In order to determine their homogeneities in reading comprehension, a reading comprehension test was given to them. Then they based on their own scores, 45 students assigned two experimental groups and one control group, each include 15 students. Control group are taught through the traditional method, first experimental group are taught through Instructional Conversation method and second experimental group received Instructional Conversation with traditional method. After instruction, a post-test was given to them. The findings reveled differences in the performance of the three groups of the study. Based on the result of these study, adopting integrated approach (instructional conversation method plus traditional method) is more useful for increasing reading comprehension of the students.
The Impact of Reading Strategy Training on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Hamid Reza Khalaji,Karim Vafaeeseresht
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.3.1.135-140
Abstract: This article examines the strategies training teachers employ in various stages of instruction in classroom language learning. Therefore, this study aims at determining the difference in the strategy use by readers at an upper-intermediate level. The subjects of this study were preparatory ELT students at Islamic Azad University, Malayer branch. The students were administered an inventory of strategy use during their in-classroom reading studies. Data was analyzed through a percentage study. It was reported in the study that readers participating in strategy training courses differed significantly from those who did not. By recognizing the differences between the two groups during the reading stage, foreign language teachers were advised to manipulate training their students in reading strategies before starting the reading courses. A sentence or a paragraph may also help the reader to understand a specific word (the contextual meaning). The students should be guided to make use of the strategies they have already learned to reach and capture the meaning (the message) given in the reading material.
The Efficiency of Extensive Reading Project (ERP) in an Iranian EFL Context  [cached]
Ali Asghar Kargar
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.2.1.165-169
Abstract: The importance of input and exposure to simplified language for low level learners has been the focus of a lot of attention as a way to facilitate the process of language learning and acquisition. One way to help such learners is to have them read many simplified texts in the Language, a method which is called extensive reading. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of such programs in improving learners' reading proficiency. The main goal of the present study was to examine the effects of Extensive Reading Project on Iranian low level learners. To find its effects, of 67 EFL students who had failed their first reading course, 40 students were selected randomly and were divided randomly into one experimental and one control group. A standard reading proficiency test (pre-test) confirmed the homogeneity of both groups. Then during a program which took ten weeks to be accomplished, participants of the experimental group were asked to read ten interesting stories in English as a part of their reading class, while the members of control group continued their traditional reading class. At the end, the same standard reading proficiency test, as post-test, was introduced to both control and experimental groups. The obtained results revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of both groups; in other words, extensive reading (ER) had a positive effect on the reading proficiency achievement of low level EFL students.
Mohammad Taghi Farvardin,Reza Biria
International Journal of Instruction , 2012,
Abstract: Research has shown that the effect of marginal glosses on reading comprehension and vocabulary retention is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue among Iranian university EFL students. Three types of glosses were applied in this study: single gloss in participants’ first language (SL1G), single gloss in participants’ second language (SL2G), and multiple-choice gloss (MCG) in participants’ second language. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students majoring in English Teaching at Azad University of Najafabad, Iran, read the texts under three conditions: SL1G, SL2G, and MCG. Afterwards, participants answered two vocabulary tests, one administered immediately after the reading test and another three weeks later. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and follow-up post hoc tests (p<.05) showed that MCG facilitated participants’ vocabulary learning while reading the text more than SLGs. The results of One-way ANOVA also revealed that SL2G was the most facilitative gloss type for the participants’ reading comprehension. The study illustrates how different types of textual glosses can affect both reading comprehension and vocabulary retention. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The Effect of Textual Cohesive Reference Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Students  [cached]
Nader Assadi Aidinlou,Noushin Khodamard,Jaber Azami
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v2n5p18
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of textual cohesive reference instruction on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL students. To do so, about 60 students at advanced level participated in this study. The researcher divided them into two groups: control group and experimental group (30 students in each class). The control group received placebo (without useful instruction about cohesive references), but experimental group received treatment (textual cohesive reference instruction). The researcher’s subjects were collected from Islamic Azad university of Rasht, Iran. They were studying English as a foreign language (B.A).The age average amongst them was 23 to 26. Also as the level of our instruction and by the help of test-retest analysis it was proved that these subjects can do that kind of test and instruction. In order to investigate the effect of textual cohesive reference on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL students, the results of the pre and post tests were used to gain the mean and standard deviation. Finally with the help of our experimental study this research led to the conclusion that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups allowing the researchers to reject the null hypothesis with more than 95% confidence.
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