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PROBLEMAS RELACIONADOS CON LA NACIONALIDAD DEL BUQUE Problems related to the nationality of a ship  [cached]
María del Pino Domínguez Cabrera
Revista de Derecho , 2005,
Abstract: El Derecho internacional público y la Convención de Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar de 1982 establecen que la atribución por un Estado de su nacionalidad a los buques es una cuestión que corresponde regularla a cada Estado, que goza de un amplio margen de discrecionalidad para establecer en su legislación los requisitos o las condiciones que se tienen que cumplir para que el buque sea autorizado a enarbolar su pabellón y sea inscrito en el registro nacional. Ese margen de discrecionalidad apenas resulta afectado por la exigencia de que exista una relación auténtica entre el buque y el Estado cuyo pabellón enarbola, según ordena la Convención de Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar de 1982. Pues bien, es en este marco en el que deben afrontarse las dificultades suscitadas por la atribución (o no atribución) de una nacionalidad a los buques, puesto que la identificación del buque se debilita (o, en su caso, es inexistente) cuando se constata que uno de los elementos individualizadores principales (la nacionalidad) es ficticio, porque la vinculación del buque es más intensa y efectiva con un Estado distinto al del Estado del pabellón que enarbola, o bien es fraudulenta International Public Law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), opened for signature in December of 1982, acknowledge the right of each state to fix the conditions for the grant of its nationality to ships. States enjoy broad discretion to determine the legal requirements for a ship to be entitled to fly their flag and be registered in the state's territory, with the only limitation that there must be a genuine link between the State and the ship, as required by the UNCLOS. Problems arising on the granting (or not granting) of nationality to ships must be resolved using the frame of the UNCLOS. These problems may arise because the nationality of the ship is fictitious, since the ship has a stronger link with a state different from the one its flag is flying, or because the granting of the nationality was fraudulent
PANORAMA DE LA PROTECCIóN JURISPRUDENCIAL A LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS DE LAS PERSONAS CON DISCAPACIDAD EN COLOMBIA PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES' HUMAN RIGHTS. OVERVIEW OF ITS LEGAL PROTECTION IN COLOMBIA  [cached]
Lucas Correa-Montoya
Vniversitas , 2009,
Abstract: La jurisprudencia constitucional colombiana en relación con la protección de los Derechos Humanos de las personas con discapacidad ha jugado un rol activo, a través de las sentencias la Corte ha protegido ampliamente a las personas con discapacidad y se ha referido a sus derechos en numerosas ocasiones, los ha ampliado, ha garantizado y en general ha redignificado a la persona con discapacidad y recalcado la posición privilegiada que les otorga el texto constitucional. El artículo desarrolla un panorama general de la protección jurisprudencial en torno a los deberes constitucionales del Estado con respeto a las personas con discapacidad, la jurisprudencia de la Corte Constitucional Colombiana y el concepto de discapacidad, la igualdad y la prevención de la discriminación, el derecho a la movilidad, el derecho al trabajo y la protección laboral reforzada de las personas con discapacidad, el derecho a la salud, y el derecho a la educación. The Colombian Constitutional Court's precedent regarding the persons with disabilities' human rights has played an active role. It has widely protected and dignified them, it was also reaffirmed the privilege place given to them by the Constitution. The paper presents a general overview of persons with disabilities human rights legal protection and specifically: the Constitutional duties of the State, the disability concept, the equality, the rights to mobility, to work, to health services and education.
Borders and Legal Criteria for Acquiring Nationality
María Elósegui Itxaso
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2008,
Abstract: Legal criteria for acquiring nationality are crucial in the integration of persons into society, since they provide access to the right to vote. Until now, the criteria most frequently used are those of ius soli (birth) and ius sanguinis (nationality is inherited from the parents), which comply with previous anthropological approaches and which jurists accept without reflection, or consider to be unshakeable traditions.The author’s proposal in this article is to accept that some of these legal criteria should be reformed, though not in an anarchic manner. On one hand, some of the ethnic criteria may be respected, but on the other, the processes of acquiring nationality should be streamlined by accepting the desire of persons wanting to change their nationality on moving to a new country of residence. Meanwhile, we must establish channels of demand for accepting the democratic values and legal system of the welcoming country, as a result of which it would be fair to call for a prior learning period before the rights to nationality and suffrage are granted. The author also adds – and accepts as being a fundamental element – some of Habermas’ inclusion theses, though she stresses that this discourse should be organised into two specific, feasible legal solutions or rather, in a realistic manner.
NACIONALIDAD DE LAS PERSONAS JURíDICAS EN EL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL
Mereminskaya,Elina;
Revista de derecho (Valdivia) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09502005000100006
Abstract: the aim of this article is to analyse the development of the notion of nationality regarding legal persons (companies, commercial entities, etc.) in foreign investment laws. the author reviews international treaties and arbitral decisions concerning the subject. a functional notion of nationality can be drawn from this analysis. the reach of the notion shall be determined in light of the purposes of the foreign investment regulatory scheme
Legal Consideration of Recognizing Dual Nationality in China  [cached]
Xuan ZHANG,Yujing ZHU,Hongde ZHAN
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120802.2825
Abstract: Currently, China adopts the principle of non-recognition of dual nationality. However, with the continuous development of society, and increasingly frequent international cooperation and exchanges, Chinese emigrants abroad are crying for state to recognize dual nationality system. And also, the issue of dual nationality has triggered a fierce debate in China. Under new situation in China, limited or targeted recognizing dual nationality meets the requirements of the law and applies theory to practice. China should make appropriate adaptations to the nationality policy so as to meet the demands of current economic and social development better. Key words: Dual nationality; Nationality law; Reciprocal principle; Overseas Chinese Résumé Actuellement, la loi de la naturalisation n’approuve pas la double nationalités. Cependant, avec le développement sans cesse de notre société, l’augmentation de jour en jour de la collaboration et l’échange de la communication avec l’international, La demande des immigrants qui sont des chinois d’origine pour la réforme d’approuvement de la Double nationalités ne cesse de se croitre, le sujet de la Double Nationalité, ce sujet de la Double nationalité a également entrainer des discussions animées. La Chine sous la nouvelle forme, l’approuvement de la double nationalités est limité ou visée, mais ce dernier est conformé aux exigences judicaires et l’application de la pratique. La Chine devrait adjuster un peu ses réformes, afin de mieux s’adapter aux besoins de l’ère du developpement de la société et de l’économie d’actelle. Mots clés: D o u b l e n a t i o n a l i t é s ; L o i d e l a naturalisation; Principe égale; Chinois d’étranger
Debate: Limitations on universality: the "right to health" and the necessity of legal nationality
Lindsey N Kingston, Elizabeth F Cohen, Christopher P Morley
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-10-11
Abstract: Most discussions of the human right to health assume that every human being has legal nationality, but in reality there are at least 11 to 12 million stateless individuals worldwide who are often unable to access basic healthcare. The examples of the Roma in Europe, the hill tribes of Thailand, and many Palestinians in Israel highlight the negative health impacts associated with statelessness.Stateless individuals often face an inability to access the most basic healthcare, much less the "highest attainable standard of health" outlined by international agreements. Rather than presuming nationality, statelessness must be recognized by the medical community. Additionally, it is imperative that stateless populations be recognized, the health of these populations be tracked, and more research conducted to further elaborate upon the connection between statelessness and access to healthcare services, and hence a universal right to health.The "right to health" has been recognized as one of a set of basic human rights for at least the past half-century, since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Currently, the "right to health" has been formally recognized by 56 national governments, in the form of constitutional or statutory provisions [1]. The scope and meaning of this right has been the subject of debate within the international community, however, and the means for achieving it remain similarly contested. The features of a healthcare system that is able to guarantee a comprehensive "right to the highest level of attainable health" for the citizenry of a given nation-state may be complicated by a variety of social and political obstacles. Backman and colleagues [1] recently reviewed the status of the right to health in 194 countries and found that much work still needs to be done before this right can legitimately be considered "universal."Despite a general awareness within the scholarly community that the right to health may not be availabl
Correlation between haplotype of apolipoprotein B gene and natural longevity persons in Uygur Nationality
WenXi Jiang,ChangChun Qiu,ZuHeng Cheng,WenYu Zhou,MingLiang Gu,Qun Xu,MingWu Fang,WenQuan Niu
Science China Life Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-007-0008-2
Abstract: This paper investigated the correlation between polymorphisms and haplotypes in the apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene (SP-I/D, Xbal-RFLP, VNTR) and natural longevity persons among the Uygur people in Xinjiang. For this purpose, 191 healthy Uygur individuals aged above 90 from Hetian area of Xinjiang were recruited, and another 53 persons aged 65–70 from the same nationality, the same region and with the same gender ratio, served as the control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the frequencies of X+X+ genotype, M and L alleles and the genetypes composed of M and L were significantly higher in the longevity group than in the control group. In haplotype analyses, we found that, in the long-lived people, the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X+ and M alleles was significantly higher whereas the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X-and S alleles was significantly lower (both P<0.05) I than those of their controls. These results indicated that the S allele, SS genotype and X+-S, D-S, D-X+-S haplotypes were the possible adverse factors, whereas the M, L alleles, X+X+, MM, ML, LL genotypes and I-X+-M, X+-M haplotypes were the possibe protective factors for the naturally long-lived Uygur people in China.
Correlation between haplotype of apolipoprotein B gene and natural longevity persons in Uygur Nationality
JIANG WenXi,QIU ChangChun,CHENG ZuHeng,ZHOU WenYu,GU MingLiang,XU Qun,FANG MingWu &,NIU WenQuan,

中国科学C辑(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: This paper investigated the correlation between polymorphisms and haplotypes in the apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene (SP-I/D, Xbal-RFLP, VNTR) and natural longevity persons among the Uygur people in Xinjiang. For this purpose, 191 healthy Uygur individuals aged above 90 from Hetian area of Xinjiang were recruited, and another 53 persons aged 65–70 from the same nationality, the same region and with the same gender ratio, served as the control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the frequencies of X+X+ genotype, M and L alleles and the genetypes composed of M and L were significantly higher in the longevity group than in the control group. In haplotype analyses, we found that, in the long-lived people, the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X+ and M alleles was significantly higher whereas the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X-and S alleles was significantly lower (both P<0.05) I than those of their controls. These results indicated that the S allele, SS genotype and X+-S, D-S, D-X+-S haplotypes were the possible adverse factors, whereas the M, L alleles, X+X+, MM, ML, LL genotypes and I-X+-M, X+-M haplotypes were the possibe protective factors for the naturally long-lived Uygur people in China.
American Nationality in Postethnic Perspective  [cached]
David A. Hollinger
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 1995, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2970
Abstract: American Nationality in Postethnic Perspective
Los matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo en el derecho internacional privado espa ol  [cached]
María ángeles Rodríguez Vázquez
Boletín mexicano de derecho comparado , 2008,
Abstract: En el derecho espa ol, desde la entrada en vigor de la Ley 13/2005 está permitido el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo. La ley guarda silencio sobre las cuestiones de derecho internacional privado y, en la práctica, numerosos problemas se han planteado ante los órganos judiciales espa oles. La Dirección General de los Registros y del Notariado ha afirmado que los extranjeros cuya ley personal no permita el matrimonio homosexual pueden contraer matrimonio en Espa a ya que se considera que la diversidad de sexos en el matrimonio no es una cuestión de capacidad, sino un elemento vinculado directamente a la institución matrimonial, por lo que ha de aplicarse la ley espa ola; y porque el derecho extranjero que no permite el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo vulnera el orden público espa ol.
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