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Land Policy Instruments in Nepal  [PDF]
Ram Bhandari Chhetri
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10880
Abstract: Corporate mobilization can be made realistic if policy facilitation is provided by the government sector. This research study aimed at exploring the possibility of a mechanism that will attract substantial investments from the private sector by mobilizing the existing capital market. To do so, the research within its objective framework examined the essential policy framework from the literature review, the existing legal, financial and planning and housing policies posing impediments to the prospective participation of the corporate sector in land and housing activities. This included but not necessarily restricted to the land administration, land legislatives, cadastral mapping system and current planning techniques used and the operational constraints it would pose upon the prospective mobilization of the corporate financing in land and housing development. The research study then finally intended to arrive at the framework that could possibly facilitate or promote corporate finance in land and housing sector in a greater way. The finding from the research is then translated into a framework for increased participation for corporate sector in land and housing that chiefly included following aspects.? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10880 Journal of the Institute of Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, pp. 69–79
Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities  [PDF]
Maru?ka ?ubic Kova?
Urbani Izziv , 2001,
Abstract: Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of cities in Slovenia.
Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration
Erika Lagzdina
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Environmental and Climate Technologies , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10145-010-0035-2
Abstract: Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.
Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management  [PDF]
G?ran Finnveden,Tomas Ekvall,Yevgeniya Arushanyan,Mattias Bisaillon,Greger Henriksson,Ulrika Gunnarsson ?stling,Maria Ljunggren S?derman,Jenny Sahlin,?sa Stenmarck,Johan Sundberg,Jan-Olov Sundqvist,?sa Svenfelt,Patrik S?derholm,Anna Bj?rklund,Ola Eriksson,Tomas Forsf?lt,Mona Guath
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5030841
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.
The Role of Hybrid Instruments in the Implementation of Business Tax Policy
Dominik Gajewski
Contemporary Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.43
Abstract: The purpose of this article is the presentation of issues related to hybrid instruments. We will primarily focus on the analysis of various aspects of hybrid instruments and entities. The use of these instruments produces fairly significant tax implications that have specific effects on the holdings of capital group companies operating worldwide, and these companies therefore frequently use hybrid instruments to optimise their tax policies. This study identifies numerous issues that may be critical to these firms when designing an optimal tax policy, without losing sight of the fact that fiscal policy is an essential determinant of the financial standing of a company. In particular, this article discusses the tax consequences of various policies given the different tax systems used in the European Union countries, focusing upon the specific conditions and implications of the Polish tax system.
Choosing environmental policy instruments: An assessment of the 'environmental dimension' of EU energy policy  [PDF]
Kai Schulze
European Integration Online Papers , 2011,
Abstract: Although they have formerly constituted distinct traditions in the European integration process, EU regulatory activities in environmental and energy policy have now become highly interwoven. Environmental concerns increasingly influence the formulation of the EU’s energy policy, especially given the twofold challenge of securing sufficient energy supply whilst also addressing the necessity of combating climate change. In this context, a key question is, how exactly does the EU approach environmental policy objectives as part of its energy policy? Is the ‘environmental dimension’ of EU energy policy subject to a different regulatory approach than EU environmental policy in general? This paper addresses these questions from a neo-functionalist perspective by comparing the different types of policy instruments adopted by the EU in the two interrelated areas over the past four decades. Overall, this work finds that the EU continues to rely heavily on traditional command and control regulation in the context of air pollution control, whereas the environmental dimension of EU energy policy is frequently controlled by new, less interventionist forms of governance.
Haralambie George Alin
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.
The Research on the Economic Effect of Market-Based Environmental Policy Instruments  [PDF]
Yunfan Bai, Xing Yang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.44006
Abstract: Market-based environmental policy has many forms, including carbon trade and carbon taxes. The choice of market-based environmental policy instruments needs careful consideration of the effect on economy growth and structure. In the analytical framework of Ramsey model, carbon emissions are added into the instantaneous utility function and the problem of maximization of enterprise profits. Based on this hypothesis, the balance growth path and dynamitic changes of consumption and investment could be compared under different market-based environmental policy instruments. The conclusion shows that market-based environmental policy instruments have a negative effect on economic growth in the short run. However, in the long run, these instruments can promote economic growth and optimize economic structure by giving enterprises motivation to improve emission reduction technology. The distinction of these two environmental policy instruments lies in the difference between the price of carbon emission permit and the rate of carbon taxes. Moreover, by derivation, it is obvious that saving rate is inversely linked to carbon tax rate (or the price of carbon emission permit). Therefore, according to the current situation in China’s economic development, in order to improve consumption’s contribution on economic growth, we can choose the instrument which has higher price to reduce saving rate. In this way, consumption can be promoted and the structure of economics can be optimized.
Implications of fiscal policy instruments in community forest management of Nepal: Issues and challenges  [PDF]
A Paudel,G Weiss
Banko Janakari , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/banko.v20i2.4802
Abstract: Nepalese Community Forestry has unclear and inconsistent legal provisions related to fiscal policy instruments. Based on the review of forest policy documents, and semistructured interviews and group discussions with individuals from government units, community forest user groups and traders from Parbat, Baglung and Dolakha districts of Nepal, this paper demonstrates that there are a number of issues and challenges related to fiscal policy instruments that have affected the promotion of sustainable and market-oriented management of forest resources, co-ordination between local and central government authorities, benefit sharing of forest resources, and the overall financial situation of community forest user groups. As a result, local communities do not fully benefit from their forest resources. We argue that a good co-ordination among government units, CFUGs and non-governmental organizations, and their active participation in policy making process can help to make the fiscal policy consistent and unambiguous to mitigate the existing issues and challenges. Key words: Economic policy instrument; revenue sharing; multiple taxation; forest certification; income generation activities DOI: 10.3126/banko.v20i2.4802 Banko Janakari Vol.20(2) 2010 pp.41-47
Extending Eventually Consistent Cloud Databases for Enforcing Numeric Invariants  [PDF]
Valter Balegas,Diogo Serra,Sérgio Duarte,Carla Ferreira,Rodrigo Rodrigues,Nuno Pregui?a,Marc Shapiro,Mahsa Najafzadeh
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Geo-replicated databases often operate under the principle of eventual consistency to offer high-availability with low latency on a simple key/value store abstraction. Recently, some have adopted commutative data types to provide seamless reconciliation for special purpose data types, such as counters. Despite this, the inability to enforce numeric invariants across all replicas still remains a key shortcoming of relying on the limited guarantees of eventual consistency storage. We present a new replicated data type, called bounded counter, which adds support for numeric invariants to eventually consistent geo-replicated databases. We describe how this can be implemented on top of existing cloud stores without modifying them, using Riak as an example. Our approach adapts ideas from escrow transactions to devise a solution that is decentralized, fault-tolerant and fast. Our evaluation shows much lower latency and better scalability than the traditional approach of using strong consistency to enforce numeric invariants, thus alleviating the tension between consistency and availability.
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