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Reproduction and analysis of an animal model for assessing the efficacy of debridement agent for firearm injuries  [cached]
Wei HU,Ai-min WANG,Bo ZHANG,Shuai LIU
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To reproduce an animal model for assessing the efficacy of a debridement agent for firearm injuries.Methods Rabbits and goats(4 each) were assigned to group A and group B,and 8 pigs were randomly divided into group C and group D(4 each).Spherical projectiles(initial velocity 850m/s,weight 0.375g) fired by a 53-type musket were used to produce soft tissue injuries of hind limbs in group A,B and C,and cylindrical projectiles(initial velocity 950m/s,weight 0.87g) fired by a 53-type musket were used in group D.The local traumatic condition,pathological zones,bacterial counts and cytokine levels of tissues around the wound tracks were measured,and the constancy of the model was evaluated using coefficient of variation(CV).Results Penetrating wounds of soft tissues were made in hind limbs in all animal.The consistency degree of wound track entrance size,exit size and volume of wound track was higher in group B and D than in group A and D.Typical pathological zones of firearm wounds were observed under light microscope,and it was found that the local traumatic condition was more constant in group C than in other three groups.Determination of bacterial counts showed a heavy bacterial contamination of tissues in wound tracks,but significant difference was found among these groups.TNF-α and IL-6 levels in wound tissues increased gradually within 24 hours after the injury,and the changes in TNF-α and IL-6 levels in plasma showed a similar trend,but all the cytokine levels were low.Conclusions Simple soft tissue penetrating wounds in posterior limbs of pigs produced by spherical projectiles(velocity 850m/s,weight 0.375g) possess typical histopathological and bacterial characteristics of firearm injuries.This model is simple to reproduce,the traumatic condition is constant,and has a good reproducibility.
PF-03882845, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevents renal injury with reduced risk of hyperkalemia in an animal model of nephropathy  [PDF]
Stephen Orena,Tristan S. Maurer,Rena Eudy,Vincent Bernardo,Jessie Qian,Carine M. Boustany-Kari
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00115
Abstract: The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists PF-03882845 and eplerenone were evaluated for renal protection against aldosterone-mediated renal disease in uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats maintained on a high salt diet and receiving aldosterone by osmotic mini-pump for 27 days. Serum K+ and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed following 14 and 27 days of treatment. Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of pro-fibrotic genes relative to sham-operated controls not receiving aldosterone. While both PF-03882845 and eplerenone elevated serum K+ levels with similar potencies, PF-03882845 was more potent than eplerenone in suppressing the rise in UACR. PF-03882845 prevented the increase in collagen IV staining at 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg BID while eplerenone was effective only at the highest dose tested (450 mg/kg BID). All doses of PF-03882845 suppressed aldosterone-induced increases in collagen IV, transforming growth factor-β 1 (Tgf-β 1), interleukin-6 (Il-6), intermolecular adhesion molecule-1 (Icam-1) and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI), calculated as the ratio of the EC50 for increasing serum K+ to the EC50 for UACR lowering, was 83.8 for PF-03882845 and 1.47 for eplerenone. Thus, the TI of PF-03882845 against hyperkalemia was 57-fold superior to that of eplerenone indicating that PF-03882845 may present significantly less risk for hyperkalemia compared to eplerenone.
Reproduction of superior sagittal sinus animal model by bypass transplantation of biomaterial graft  [cached]
Qing-yong LUO,Wei-min WANG,Wei-zhong WANG,Sha-sha WANG
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To establish the beagles model of superior sagittal sinus bypass graft,and explore the feasibility of reconstruction of superior sagittal sinus with biomaterials using this model.Methods Eight adult male beagles(weight: 12.5-22.0kg) were involved in the present study.The superior sagittal sinus was exposed and blocked via bone window,and then anastomosed side-to-end to the biomaterial graft under the dedicated microscope of neurosurgery surgery,expectant treatment such as anti-inflammatory was given for the animals.The digital subtraction venography(DSV) and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) of superior sagittal sinus were performed in 1,2,4 and 8 weeks after the operation.Eight weeks after the operation,all the animals were sacrificed and the material graft was examined histologically.Results The DSV and CDFI of superior sagittal sinus showed that the stomas of 2 beagles were with slight stenosis and high flow velocity,of 1 beagle with small leakage and low flow velocity,while of other 5 beagles were normal.The histological examination showed endothelial cells were growing on the graft and superior sagittal sinus,and crawling toward the lumen of graft 8 weeks after the operation.Conclusion The beagles model of superior sagittal sinus bypass graft was established successfully.The short-term effect of the model was satisfactory,while further work should be performed to determine the long-term effects.
Reproduction and appraisal of an animal model of acute myelomonocytic leukemia in the CB6F1generation mice  [cached]
Hong-li ZUO,En-lan PENG,Tie-qiang LIU,Shan HUANG
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To reproduce an acute myelomonocytic leukemia M4(AML-M4)animal model with the CB6F1generation mice.Methods The CB6F1(BALB/c C57BL/6)mice were inoculated intravenously with different amounts(1×106,2×106,5×106,1 ×107)of WEHI-3cells,a cell line of myelomonocytic leukemia.The correlation between the animal survival and the inoculated amount was analyzed.The mice,inoculated with 1×106 cells,were selected for observation of leukemia onset,and sampled for routine blood test.Four weeks after inoculation,the peripheral blood was collected from moribund mice,morphological observation was made in blood smears,and immunophenotype and major histocompatibility complex(MHC)was determined;the marrow cells were collected for morphological observation,and immunochemical and karyotype analysas were made.The liver,spleen,kidney,lung,heart and brain were obtained for pathological observation.The results of all the observations and determinations were then comprehensively analyzed to evaluate the authenticity of the established AML-M4mice model.Ara-C,in a dosage of 50mg/kg or 100mg/kg,was intraperitoneally injected to the model mice for observation of the disease course and survival of the animals,and to evaluate the sensitivity of model mice to the chemotherapeutics.Normal mice were selected to serve as control in all the experiments.Results Mice inoculated with different amount of WEHI-3cells died of leukemia 17to 33days after inoculation,and a negative correlation between the inoculated amount and the survival time of animals was observed(r=-0.936,P < 0.01).Those inoculated with 1×106 cells survived for 25~33(28.50±1.87)days.Four weeks after inoculation,the WBC counts of peripheral blood increased obviously with a peak value of 81×109/L,in the moribund leukemic mice,which was significantly different from that of normal control(P < 0.05).Leukemia cells with larger size and irregular shape were observed in the blood smear.A large number of primary and immature cells were found in the marrow smear,and peroxidase(POX),specific esterase(SE),nonspecific esterase(NSE)and sodium fluoride(NaF)inhibition test were all positive,which were consistent with the characteristics of AML-M4.Diffuse infiltration of large number of leukemia cells was observed in multiple organs.The chromosomes of marrow cells were hyperdiploids.CD4+/CD8+in peripheral blood declined,and C-KIT and MAC-3were expressed in a larger number of cells compared with the normal animals(P < 0.05).The percentage of MHC with H2Kb-H2Kd+phenotype was increased,which became the major phenotype in the moribund mice.
Environmental Stress Effect on Animal Reproduction  [PDF]
Córdova-Izquierdo Alejandro, Villa-Mancera Abel, Olivares Pérez Jaime, Sánchez-Aparicio Pedro
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42011
Abstract: The aim of this review is to present some aspects of environmental stress effect on reproduction of farm animals. It describes the following: neuroendocrinology of stress, types of stress, stress characteristics in the reproductive process and recommendations for control environmental stress. Stress is the result of confinement and an ambitious vision and uncaring by the man, who is in the interest of improving production, has participated unconsciously, by manipulating animal production in its way, even trying to tame new species, impossible to adapt to our environment healthy. At present, it has been concluded that stress is one of the environmental factors that affect handling and decrease the production of livestock, it is considered that the main factor which should be controlled in units animal production, since it is closely related to pathogens and infectious agents that may try to the health of animals. Finally, some recommendations are outlined to lessen stress for heat, by handling and by feeding.
Animal Model of Dermatophytosis
Tsuyoshi Shimamura,Nobuo Kubota,Kazutoshi Shibuya
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/125384
Abstract: Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects.
Severe hyperkalemia with normal electrocardiogram  [cached]
Sharma Sanjay,Gupta Harish,Ghosh Meena,Padmanabhan Anantanarayan
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: We report a case of severe hyperkalemia and normal electrocardiogram in an ex-preterm infant with renal failure due to bilateral obstruction of pelvicalyceal system caused by renal fungal mycetoma. In spite of maximal serum potassium of 11.3 mmol/L the ECG did not show any changes associated with hyperkalemia.
Electrocardiogram manifestations in hyperkalemia  [PDF]
Ronny Cohen, Rhadames Ramos, Christine A. Garcia, Sohail Mehmood, Yoojin Park, Anthony Divittis, Brooks Mirrer
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2012.22010
Abstract: Hyperkalemia is defined as serum potassium level of more than 5 mmol/L. Prompt identification of hyper-kalemia and appropriate management are critical, since severe hyperkalemia can lead to lethal cardiac dysrhythmias. There is a wide range of electrocardiogram (EKG) changes associated with hyperkalemia. The sequence of EKG changes has been previously described with limited information to correlate the level of potassium to a particular change in the EKG. This study aims to describe a correlation between the level of potassium and EKG changes in the presence or absence of certain diagnoses, to determine which EKG finding in the context of level of hyperkalemia, should be considered life-threatening and prompt emergency intervention. If a relationship between serum levels of potassium and EKG changes is significant, clinicians may be able to better monitor and treat hyperkalemic patients. This paper reviews the literature on hyperkalemia, potassium homeostasis and EKG changes attributed to elevated potassium.
EFECTOS DE LOS FITOESTRóGENOS EN LA REPRODUCCIóN ANIMAL PHYTOSTROGEN EFFECTS ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION  [cached]
Yasser Yohan Lenis Sanin,María Teresa Gutiérrez Gómez,Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2010,
Abstract: Los fitoestrógenos son compuestos producidos como metabolitos secundarios en algunas plantas y forrajes destinados al consumo humano y animal. Su importancia radica en que cuando son consumidos pueden tener actividad endógena de forma agónica o antagónica con los estrógenos. Se conocen cinco familias de fitoestrógenos clasificadas de acuerdo a su estructura química (flavonoides, isoflavonoides, coumestanos, lignanos y estilbenos). A pesar de que los fitoestrógenos afectan aparatos y sistemas de vital importancia como el renal, nervioso, cardiovascular entre otros; uno de los sistemas más afectados es el reproductivo, sobre el cual se centra la presente revisión, sin embargo, la literatura es controversial al respecto, demostrado efectos tanto carcinogénicos como anticarcinogénicos. El mecanismo de acción de los fitoestrógenos está mediado por la estimulación o inhibición de los receptores ERalfa y ERbeta que son propios de los estrógenos, por lo cual se consideran de importancia en los sistemas productivos y la salud humana por alteraciones que puedan provocar sobre la fisiología reproductiva. El objetivo de esta revisión es mostrar el estado del arte del conocimiento del efecto de los fitoestrógenos sobre la reproducción y resaltar los vacíos en el conocimiento. Phytoestrogens are compounds produced as secondary metabolites in some plants and forajes for animal and human consumption. Its importance is that when they are consumed they can have endogenous activity of agonizing or antagonizing the estrogens. It is known five families of phytoestrogens classified according to their chemical structure as (flavonoids, isoflavones, coumestans, lignans and stilbenes). Despite the fact that phytoestrogens affect vital systems such as the kidney, nervous, cardiovascular and others, one of the most affected is the reproductive tract, in which is the focuses of this review; however, the literature is controversial because they has shown both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effects. The mechanism of action of phytoestrogens is mediated by stimulation or inhibition of the receptors ERalpha and ERbeta that are specific to estrogen, and therefore are considered of importance in animal production systems and human health because they may cause alterations on the reproductive physiology. The aim of this review is to show the state of the art about the knowledge of the effect of phytoestrogens on reproduction and highlight gaps in knowledge.
Treatment and pathogenesis of acute hyperkalemia  [cached]
Yelena Mushiyakh,Harsh Dangaria,Shahbaz Qavi,Noorjahan Ali
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/jchimp.v1i4.7372
Abstract: This article focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and various treatment modalities for acute hyperkalemia and presents a systematic approach to selecting a treatment strategy. Hyperkalemia, a life-threatening condition caused by extracellular potassium shift or decreased renal potassium excretion, usually presents with non-specific symptoms. Early recognition of moderate to severe hyperkalemia is vital in preventing fatal cardiac arrhythmias and muscle paralysis. Management of hyperkalemia includes the elimination of reversible causes (diet, medications), rapidly acting therapies that shift potassium into cells and block the cardiac membrane effects of hyperkalemia, and measures to facilitate removal of potassium from the body (saline diuresis, oral binding resins, and hemodialysis). Hyperkalemia with potassium level more than 6.5 mEq/L or EKG changes is a medical emergency and should be treated accordingly. Treatment should be started with calcium gluconate to stabilize cardiomyocyte membranes, followed by insulin injection, and b-agonists administration. Hemodialysis remains the most reliable method to remove potassium from the body and should be used in cases refractory to medical treatment. Prompt detection and proper treatment are crucial in preventing lethal outcomes.
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