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A misunderstood Pope  [PDF]
Juan Bottasso
Alteridad : Revista de Educación , 2013,
Abstract: After Pope Benedict′s resignation, the media obsessively highlighted divisions of the Church and the scandals, forgetting that Joseph Ratzinger had sought to preserve the Church′s “common denominator of tradition and dogma”. Through a brief analysis on the difficult path Ratzinger had to lead, as part of the Ecumenical Council, in his differences with the theology of liberation, and his reluctance later as Pope to blindly leap into modernity, this article points out Ratzinger′s efforts to keep the Church unified. Ratzinger belonged to the progressive wing of the Council, however, his work was misunderstood for having to maintain order in a world marked by 1968′s social revolution, the Cold War, Marxism, the politicization of religion, and thus having to defend the Church from “self-destruction”. This article discusses the reality of Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, a life dedicated to the Catholic Church in the face of today′s world challenges.
Davidson, Dualism, and Truth  [cached]
Nathaniel Goldberg
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy , 2012, DOI: 10.4148/jhap.v1i7.1590
Abstract: Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.
Distinguishing WV Quine and Donald Davidson
James Pearson
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy , 2011, DOI: 10.4148/jhap.v1i1.1293
Abstract: Given W.V. Quine’s and Donald Davidson’s extensive agreement about much of the philosophy of language and mind, and the obvious methodological parallels between Quine’s radical translation and Davidson’s radical interpretation, many—including Quine and Davidson—are puzzled by their occasional disagreements. I argue for the importance of attending to these disagreements, not just because doing so deepens our understanding of these influential thinkers, but because they are in fact the shadows thrown from two distinct conceptions of philosophical inquiry: Quine’s “naturalism” and what I call Davidson’s “humanism.” The clash between Quine and Davidson thus provides valuable insight into the history of analytic naturalism and its malcontents.
Spotlight 6: Davidson Seamount
David Clague,Lonny Lundsten,James Hein,Jennifer Paduan
Oceanography , 2010,
Abstract: Davidson Seamount is located about 80 km off the central California coast in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. It is one of the better-explored seamounts in the world, having been sampled and observed during 32 dives by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Tiburon. These dives mapped the bottom substrate and biological communities, and collected over 280 rock samples and nearly as many benthic animals.
A Formalization of the Turing Test  [PDF]
Evgeny Chutchev
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: The paper offers a mathematical formalization of the Turing test. This formalization makes it possible to establish the conditions under which some Turing machine will pass the Turing test and the conditions under which every Turing machine (or every Turing machine of the special class) will fail the Turing test.
Mind, Davidson and Reality
Daniel Laurier
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 2005,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to show that the prospects for intentional irreal-ism are much brighter than it is generally thought. In the first section, I provide a general characterization of some of the various forms that the realism/irrealism debates might take. In the second, I ask whether there is any defensible form of realism about intentional states. I show that most candidates are nearly trivially false, and that the only form of in-tentional realism which is not, is a restricted one which is prima facie no more plausible than the corresponding form of irrealism. In the third and last section, I defend my interpretation of what intentional irrealism amounts to against some possible misunderstandings, give some reasons why it should be taken seriously and argue that it could plausibly be at-tributed to Davidson.
Rorty, Williams, and Davidson: Skepticism and Metaepistemology  [PDF]
Duncan Pritchard,Christopher Ranalli
Humanities , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/h2030351
Abstract: We revisit an important exchange on the problem of radical skepticism between Richard Rorty and Michael Williams. In his contribution to this exchange, Rorty defended the kind of transcendental approach to radical skepticism that is offered by Donald Davidson, in contrast to Williams’s Wittgenstein-inspired view. It is argued that the key to evaluating this debate is to understand the particular conception of the radical skeptical problem that is offered in influential work by Barry Stroud, a conception of the skeptical problem which generates metaepistemological ramifications for anti-skeptical theories. In particular, we argue that, contra Williams, Rorty’s view that Davidson was offering a theoretical diagnosis of radical skepticism can be consistently maintained with his transcendental approach.
On the Power of Positive Turing Reductions  [PDF]
Edith Hemaspaandra
Computer Science , 1999,
Abstract: In the early 1980s, Selman's seminal work on positive Turing reductions showed that positive Turing reduction to NP yields no greater computational power than NP itself. Thus, positive Turing and Turing reducibility to NP differ sharply unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We show that the situation is quite different for DP, the next level of the boolean hierarchy. In particular, positive Turing reduction to DP already yields all (and only) sets Turing reducibility to NP. Thus, positive Turing and Turing reducibility to DP yield the same class. Additionally, we show that an even weaker class, P(NP[1]), can be substituted for DP in this context.
Are there intelligent Turing machines?  [PDF]
Norbert Bátfai
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quotient or the emotional intelligence quotient for Turing machines.
Internal Turing Machines  [PDF]
Ken Loo
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: Using nonstandard analysis, we will extend the classical Turing machines into the internal Turing machines. The internal Turing machines have the capability to work with infinite ($*$-finite) number of bits while keeping the finite combinatoric structures of the classical Turing machines. We will show the following. The internal deterministic Turing machines can do in $*$-polynomial time what a classical deterministic Turing machine can do in an arbitrary finite amount of time. Given an element of $\in HALT$ (more precisely, the $*$-embedding of $HALT$), there is an internal deterministic Turing machine which will take $$ as input and halt in the $"yes"$ state. The language ${}^*Halt$ can not be decided by the internal deterministic Turing machines. The internal deterministic Turing machines can be viewed as the asymptotic behavior of finite precision approximation to real number computations. It is possible to use the internal probabilistic Turing machines to simulate finite state quantum mechanics with infinite precision. This simulation suggests that no information can be transmitted instantaneously and at the same time, the Turing machine model can simulate instantaneous collapse of the wave function. The internal deterministic Turing machines are powerful, but if $P \neq NP$, then there are internal problems which the internal deterministic Turing machines can solve but not in $*$-polynomial time.
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