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Grand challenges for Translational Materials Science  [PDF]
Oliver Hayden
Frontiers in Materials , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2014.00005
Abstract: Materials are undoubtedly the hidden champions of healthcare, biotechnology or energy innovations, nevertheless, novel materials are not automatically translated into products. The success of functional materials is not a matter of luck; it is the result of years of failure and the painstaking design of the fundamental translational steps from materials science to real-world prototypes. Connect scientists and engineers for materials innovation The need for a tight collaboration in the discovery-to-product translation process between scientists and engineers is often underestimated. The genius of these two communities is equally important; not only for the integration of novel materials into functional devices but also for the adaptation to the ever changing constraints of the market. Translational Materials Science reacts to the need of filling the communication gap among different players of the translation process and provides an optimal platform of sharing the information related to the efforts connecting basic science to product launch. Market needs and materials applications evolve in parallel and continuously affect each other, just as in the case of the crack-resistant glass for smart phones or the photoresist for lithography for true nanoscale CMOS field-effect transistors. Furthermore, materials innovation requires public-private partnership instead of the current practice of small teams and black box thinking due to the necessity for high and long-term investments. A beautiful example on how translation occurs is the hype on bottom-up synthesized semiconducting nanowires that triggers CMOS top-down nanowire engineering work to rescue Moore’s law with novel device architectures and hybrid semiconductors of group IV and III-V semiconductors for higher charge carrier mobilities. In the fields of biotechnology, in-vitro diagnostics and therapy the facile synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with biological coatings. This innovation changed fundamentally our understanding of how to benefit from magnetism to separate, enrich, and label biological specimen without the need for invasive or cumbersome methods. For instance today we can use magnetic nanoparticles to enrich specimen for in-vitro diagnostics without the need for centrifugation steps which enables highly-automated preanalytical workflows. The last example is related to efficient energy storage which is fundamental for our mobile world. Only the high energy storage capacity and the exquisite recharging properties of lithium-ion batteries enabled today′s mobile communication world which would
The Effects Of Science Learning Through Discovery On Students' Academic Achievements, Learning Approaches and Attitudes Towards Science  [PDF]
Gül üNAL,?mer ERG?N
Journal of Turkish Science Education , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of constructivist science course including discovery learning activities for "Pressure of Liquids and Gases" with respect to students' academic achievement, science learning approaches and attitudes towards science.
Translational Research: From Biological Discovery to Public Benefit (or Not)  [PDF]
Michael R. Emmert-Buck
Advances in Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/278789
Abstract: Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future. 1. Introduction Our greatest glory is not in never failing, but in rising up every time we fail. (Ralph Waldo Emerson) Nothing exemplifies the quote above from Emerson more than the translation of a biological discovery into a new drug, device, or other intervention that helps society. This is no easy task. The stakes here are high—human health and wellbeing; thus it is important that the translational system is critically examined and understood in order to maximize the likelihood that basic research performed in the laboratory and clinic benefits the public [1–7] (see Appendix for relevant websites). Moreover, if positive economic activity is generated this strengthens the biotechnology and pharmaceutical company sectors, which in turn grows the scientific ecosystem writ large, ultimately making more funds available for research and training, creating high-level jobs, and increasing appreciation of the overall enterprise by the public [8–10]. At the outset, it is important to recognize three important aspects of translational research as it is performed today. First, the system is not broken per se as there are many advances to celebrate, exemplified by the discovery, production,
Clinical and translational medicine: Integrative and practical science.
Edward Abraham, Francesco M Marincola, Zhinan Chen, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical and Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2001-1326-1-1
Abstract: Clinical and translational science has been defined as a novel attempt to "translate remarkable scientific innovations into health gains", and is a critical and core component of full-spectrum biomedical research [1]. Translational research as a key word was emphasized and headlined in the National Institutes of Health guide for Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) grants for cancer research [2]. Furthermore, translational science has been defined as a two-way process to translate discoveries from the bench into clinical application and/or the translation of clinical findings into the understanding of molecular mechanisms [3,4]. Given the growing impact of scientific knowledge and discoveries on clinical practice, translational medicine was initially described as "the marriage between new discoveries in basic science and clinical practice" [5]. Clinical and translational medicine can be used to understand the mechanisms of clinical variation between diseases, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and therapies. For example, translational medicine is involved in determining optimal regimens to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. The efficacy and safety of drugs selected from pre-clinical animal models can be translated into applicable and therapeutic approaches for clinical trials [6].Clinical and translational medicine plays a unique and critical role in fostering the flow of bidirectional information between basic and clinical scientists, optimizing new biotechnologies, improving clinical application of new therapeutic concepts, and ultimately improving the quality of life for patients. Clinical and translational medicine integrates clinical research with modern methodologies in systems and computational biology, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacomics, transcriptomics, and high-throughput image analysis. It should also foster the implementation of human tissue banking, and the development of bio-banks linked to high quality clinical data bas
Translational medicine: science or wishful thinking?
Martin Wehling
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-6-31
Abstract: These days, "translational medicine" is a fashionable term describing the inclination of biomedical researchers to ultimately help patients.As if this wish would be novel, it is being increasingly used by scientific funding agencies (e.g. NIH, European Union framework programs), regulatory authorities (e.g. FDA), researchers and patient care providers.This inflationary use has been triggered by a simple and powerful fact: despite increased efforts and investments into R&D, the output of novel medicines has been declining dramatically over the past years [1]. One of the reasons for this widening gap between input and output is the difficult transition between preclinical ("basic") and clinical stages in the R&D process. Animal experiments, test tube analyses and early human trials do simply not reflect the patient situation well enough to reliably predict efficacy and safety of a novel compound or device.Public and private responses in reflection of this observation have been numerous during the past years. This includes the "Critical Path" initiative by the FDA [2], the re-orientation of the NIH ("road-map"), enforced by Dr Zerhouni's leadership towards translational medicine with an estimated 10 billion USD channeled into translational medicine centers and other activities; major drug companies and US universities (e.g. Duke or UPenn) are being driven to establish translational medicine departments or at least working groups.So far, so good. But what has really happened and how do we expect it to affect future R&D outcome?Both in academia and industry, the wish to translate better has increased the awareness for interface problems; in academia, more clinical trials shall be performed as the tougher variant of medical research if compared with test tube research. Clinical trials require a lot more resources, paper work and endurance, and the rewards are still smaller in the public appreciation (papers, impact factors). This challenge has been identified and a huge a
Inseparability of science history and discovery
J. M. Herndon
History of Geo- and Space Sciences (HGSS) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hgss-1-25-2010
Abstract: Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1) Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2) Giant planet internal energy production; (3) Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4) Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1) Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2) The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3) The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4) Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.
Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners
Forsythe, Katherine
GMS Medizin-Bibliothek-Information , 2010,
Abstract: Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr. Broder’s Research Perspective “Twenty-Five Years of Translational Medicine in Antiretroviral Therapy: Promises to Keep”, published in Science Translational Medicine, 7 July 2010; Volume 2, Issue 39. Dr. Broder’s perspective marks the 25th anniversary of modern antiretroviral drug discovery and development. In the early 1980s, Dr. Broder’s research team adapted the nucleotide analog AZT for treating HIV infection, thus ushering in the era of antiretroviral therapies that have enabled HIV-positive individuals to live longer. The Podcast interview was conducted by Annalisa VanHook, Associate Online Editor, AAAS.
Clearing up the hazy road from bench to bedside: A framework for integrating the fourth hurdle into translational medicine
Wolf H Rogowski, Susanne C Hartz, Jürgen H John
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-194
Abstract: The study is based on expert interviews and literature searches, as well as an analysis of 47 websites of coverage decision-makers in England, Germany and the USA.Eight key steps for monitoring fourth hurdle procedures from a company perspective were determined: entering the scope of a healthcare payer; trigger of decision process; assessment; appraisal; setting level of reimbursement; establishing rules for service provision; formal and informal participation; and publication of the decision and supplementary information. Details are given for the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the German Federal Joint Committee, Medicare's National and Local Coverage Determinations, and for Blue Cross Blue Shield companies.Coverage determination decisions for new procedures tend to be less formalized than for novel drugs. The analysis of coverage procedures and requirements shows that the proof of patient benefit is essential. Cost-effectiveness is likely to gain importance in future.There is a gap between scientific knowledge and daily medical practice. While there have been major scientific breakthroughs, e.g. in the field of genomics or stem cell research, this does not necessarily directly translate into a variety of new treatments available to patients. A term frequently used to describe approaches for bridging this gap is "translational medicine". Translational medicine faces two major obstacles: the first is the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical studies; the second is to translate clinical studies into medical practice [1]. A large body of literature has focused on the first aspect [2,3]. Yet the second obstacle, which usually depends on coverage by third-party payers, is also essential for the economic success of new products in clinical development.Coverage determination may prove to be a hurdle as difficult as those encountered in demonstrating the product's efficacy, safety and quality. Due to rapidly increasing healt
Applied and Translational Genomics for Human Genetics and Clinical Science  [PDF]
Dae-Won Kim
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2014.00011
Abstract: A book review based on Applied Computational Genomics (Translational Bioinformatics Volume 1) Edited by Yin Yao Shugart Springer; 2012; ISBN: 978-94-007-5557-4; Hardcover; 184 pp.; $189.00. Translational bioinformatics is an emerging field of study that addresses the computational challenges encountered in biological and clinical research as well as in the analysis and interpretation of the data generated from it. Applied computation genomics, as part of the Springer Series on Translational Bioinformatics, thoroughly discusses the most relevant issues in the development of novel techniques for the integration of human genetic, biological, and clinical data. This book also provides an example of theories and research being practically applied to inform translational medical research in clinical diagnosis. This book covers numerous experimental and computational methods related to statistical development and their applications in the field of human genomics, including candidate gene mapping, linkage analysis, population-based, genome-wide association, exon sequencing, and whole genome sequencing analysis. This book consists of ten chapters. The first chapter focuses on an overview of the current human genome science. It reviews the history of using machine-learning algorithms for studies on disease prediction and provides highlights for the other nine chapters, which have been collected in this book. Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of the most important concepts in genetic epidemiology. In this chapter, the authors provide a precise definition for complex traits and a thorough introduction to genetic epidemiology as a tool for understanding the role of genetic factors. In addition, the essential study designs used to accomplish this goal, including family, twin, adoption, and migration studies, are summarized. Chapter 3 focuses on integrated linkage analysis and its results in the design, execution, and interpretation of whole genome or whole exome sequencing studies. It includes experiments, knowledge, and specific example data. This chapter also presents new statistical algorithms to identify rare variants in pedigree settings for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Chapter 4 briefly reviews the methods used to combine functional genomic data to detect complex diseases. Chapter 4 examines the progress of research on a specific rare disorder, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Dr. Jorgensen et al. conducted a thorough review of all candidate genes related to NPC and explained the findings of two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), one by a
Translational Science and Evidence-Based Healthcare: A Clarification and Reconceptualization of How Knowledge Is Generated and Used in Healthcare  [PDF]
Alan Pearson,Zoe Jordan,Zachary Munn
Nursing Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/792519
Abstract: The importance of basing health policy and health care practices on the best available international evidence (“evidence-based health care”) and on translating knowledge or evidence into action (“translation science” or “translational research”) is increasingly being emphasized across all health sectors inmost countries. Evidence-based healthcare is a process that identifies policy or clinical questions and addresses these questions by generating knowledge and evidence to effectively and appropriately deliver healthcare in ways that are effective, feasible, and meaningful to specific populations, cultures, and settings. This evidence is then appraised, synthesized, and transferred to service delivery settings and health professionals who then utilize it and evaluate its impact on health outcomes, health systems, and professional practice. Many of the common theories that address this translational process place it apart from the evidence-based practice cycle and most recognise only two translational gaps. This paper seeks to clarify the nature of evidence-based healthcare and translation science and proposes a reconceptualization that both brings together these two dominant ideas in modern healthcare and asserts the existence of a third fundamental gap that is rarely addressed the gap between knowledge need and discovery. 1. Introduction The challenges related to facilitating the cycle of scientific discovery through to the widespread adoption of a healthcare innovation have become of central concern to individuals and communities who seek or need healthcare; health professionals; policy makers; the funders of health services. Indeed, the interface between identifying knowledge needs for health improvement, pure scientific bench research, clinical trial based research, and, ultimately, the implementation of the results of research into some form of pragmatic outcome is a growing source of ongoing angst in both the research and clinical communities. It is a vital enterprise that, if achieved successfully, has the potential to result in dramatic improvements in global health outcomes. Whilst the translation of evidence into action is the raison d’être of the evidence-based practice movement, so, too, is it the core interest of translation science. Clarifying the nature and components of these two seemingly different (but, in our view, clearly complimentary) fields of endeavour and reconceptualizing this complementarity is important in advancing health policy and practice towards improving the health of people globally. Nursing in central to the delivery
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