Abstract:
In particle therapy, knowledge of the stopping-power ratios (STPRs) of the ion beam for air and water is necessary for accurate ionization chamber dosimetry. Earlier work has investigated the STPRs for pristine carbon ion beams, but here we expand the calculations to a range of ions (1 <= z <= 18) as well as spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) and provide a theoretical in-depth study with a special focus on the parameter regime relevant for particle therapy. The Monte Carlo transport code SHIELD-HIT is used to calculate complete particle-fluence spectra which are required for determining STPRs according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We confirm that the STPR depends primarily on the current energy of the ions rather than on their charge z or absolute position in the medium. However, STPRs for different sets of stopping-power data for water and air recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU) are compared, including also the recently revised data for water, yielding deviations up to 2% in the plateau region. In comparison, the influence of the secondary particle spectra on the STPR is about two orders of magnitude smaller in the whole region up till the practical range. The gained insights enable us to propose an analytic approximation for the STPR for both pristine and SOBPs as a function of penetration depth, which parametrically depend only on the initial energy and the residual range of the ion, respectively.

Abstract:
We compare the L-Function Ratios Conjecture's prediction with number theory for the family of quadratic twists of a fixed elliptic curve with prime conductor, and show agreement in the 1-level density up to an error term of size X^{-(1-sigma)/2} for test functions supported in (-sigma, sigma); this gives us a power-savings for \sigma<1. This test of the Ratios Conjecture introduces complications not seen in previous cases (due to the level of the elliptic curve). Further, the results here are one of the key ingredients in the companion paper [DHKMS2], where they are used to determine the effective matrix size for modeling zeros near the central point for this family. The resulting model beautifully describes the behavior of these low lying zeros for finite conductors, explaining the data observed by Miller in [Mil3]. A key ingredient in our analysis is a generalization of Jutila's bound for sums of quadratic characters with the additional restriction that the fundamental discriminant be congruent to a non-zero square modulo a square-free integer M. This bound is needed for two purposes. The first is to analyze the terms in the explicit formula corresponding to characters raised to an odd power. The second is to determine the main term in the 1-level density of quadratic twists of a fixed form on GL_n. Such an analysis was performed by Rubinstein [Rub], who implicitly assumed that Jutila's bound held with the additional restriction on the fundamental discriminants; in this paper we show that assumption is justified.

Abstract:
Using 355 pb^-1 of data collected by the CDF II detector in \ppbar collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, we study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B -> D pi and B -> D pi pi pi. We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) = 1.05 pm 0.10 (stat) pm 0.22 (syst). We also update our measurement of B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi) to 1.13 pm 0.08 (stat) pm 0.23 (syst) improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of two. We find B(Bs -> Ds pi) = [3.8 pm 0.3 (stat) pm 1.3 (syst)] \times 10^{-3} and B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) = [8.4 pm 0.8 (stat) pm 3.2 (syst)] \times 10^{-3}.

Abstract:
Cryptology is the study of techniques for ensuring the secrecy and authentication of the information. Public –key encryption schemes are secure only if the authenticity of the public-key is assured. Elliptic curve arithmetic can be used to develop a variety of elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) schemes including key exchange, encryption and digital signature. The principal attraction of elliptic curve cryptography compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a smaller key-size, thereby reducing the processing overhead. In the present paper we propose a new encryption algorithm using Elliptic Curve.

Abstract:
This paper introduces DD calculus and describes the basic calculus concepts of derivative and integral in a direct and non-traditional way, without limit definition: Derivative is computed from the point-slope equation of a tangent line and integral is defined as the height increment of a curve. This direct approach to calculus has three distinct features: (i) it defines derivative and (definite) integral without using limits, (ii) it defines derivative and antiderivative simultaneously via a derivative-antiderivative (DA) pair, and (iii) it posits the fundamental theorem of calculus as a natural corollary of the definitions of derivative and integral. The first D in DD calculus attributes to Descartes for his method of tangents and the second D to DA-pair. The DD calculus, or simply direct calculus, makes many traditional notations and procedures unnecessary, a plus when introducing calculus to the non-mathematics majors. It has few intermediate procedures, which can help dispel the mystery of calculus as perceived by the general public. The materials in this paper are intended for use in a two-hour introductory lecture on calculus.

Abstract:
Three notions of random stopping times exist in the literature. We introduce two concepts of equivalence of random stopping times, motivated by optimal stopping problems and stopping games respectively. We prove that these two concepts coincide and that the three notions of random stopping times are equivalent.

Abstract:
We study the low-lying zeros of L-functions attached to quadratic twists of a given elliptic curve E defined over $\mathbb Q$. We are primarily interested in the family of all twists coprime to the conductor of E and compute a very precise expression for the corresponding 1-level density. In particular, for test functions whose Fourier transforms have sufficiently restricted support, we are able to compute the 1-level density up to an error term that is significantly sharper than the square-root error term predicted by the L-functions Ratios Conjecture.

Abstract:
Stopping sets and stopping set distribution of a linear code play an important role in the performance analysis of iterative decoding for this linear code. Let $C$ be an $[n,k]$ linear code over $\f$ with parity-check matrix $H$, where the rows of $H$ may be dependent. Let $[n]=\{1,2,...,n\}$ denote the set of column indices of $H$. A \emph{stopping set} $S$ of $C$ with parity-check matrix $H$ is a subset of $[n]$ such that the restriction of $H$ to $S$ does not contain a row of weight 1. The \emph{stopping set distribution} $\{T_{i}(H)\}_{i=0}^{n}$ enumerates the number of stopping sets with size $i$ of $C$ with parity-check matrix $H$. Denote $H^{*}$ the parity-check matrix consisting of all the non-zero codewords in the dual code $C^{\bot}$. In this paper, we study stopping sets and stopping set distributions of some residue algebraic geometry (AG) codes with parity-check matrix $H^*$. First, we give two descriptions of stopping sets of residue AG codes. For the simplest AG codes, i.e., the generalized Reed-Solomon codes, it is easy to determine all the stopping sets. Then we consider AG codes from elliptic curves. We use the group structure of rational points of elliptic curves to present a complete characterization of stopping sets. Then the stopping sets, the stopping set distribution and the stopping distance of the AG code from an elliptic curve are reduced to the search, counting and decision versions of the subset sum problem in the group of rational points of the elliptic curve, respectively. Finally, for some special cases, we determine the stopping set distributions of AG codes from elliptic curves.

Abstract:
A general result on the method of randomized stopping is proved. It is applied to optimal stopping of controlled diffusion processes with unbounded coefficients to reduce it to an optimal control problem without stopping. This is motivated by recent results of Krylov on numerical solutions to the Bellman equation.

Abstract:
Using an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model, nuclear stopping is analyzed in asymmetric colliding channels by keeping the total mass fixed. The calculations have been carried by varying the asymmetry of the colliding pairs with different neutron-proton ratios in center of mass energy 250 MeV/nucleon and by switching off the effect of Coulomb interactions. We find sizable effect of asymmetry of colliding pairs on the stopping and therefore on the equilibrium reached in a reaction.