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Comparison of IAEA absorbed dose protocols TRS 277 and TRS 398 for different photon energies
Hilal ACAR,Salih GüRDALLI,Bülent YAPICI,Ali DO?AN
Turkish Journal of Oncology , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: In this study, calculation of absorbed doses according to three different IAEA protocols for Co-60, 6 MV, 25 MV photon energies are compared. METHODS: Absorbed dose measurements are made at SSD=SAD distance, 10x10 cm field size and referance depth. Photon energies are measured with five different cylindirical chambers. Polarity and recombination effects are measured for all ionization chambers and energies. RESULTS: After the measurements, calculations are made according to two different protocols and absorbe dose calculated according to TRS 398 protocol is maximum 0.32% bigger than TRS 277’s dose for Co-60, and 0.57% bigger for 6 MV and 1.53% bigger for 25 MV. CONCLUSION: As a result, TRS 398 protocol enables us to calculate much more accurate absorbe dose.
Absolute dose determination in high-energy electron beams: Comparison of IAEA dosimetry protocols  [cached]
Sathiyan S,Ravikumar M
Journal of Medical Physics , 2008,
Abstract: In this study, absorbed doses were measured and compared for high-energy electrons (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS), TRS 381, and TRS 398 dosimetry protocols. Absolute dose measurements were carried out using FC65-G Farmer chamber and Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP) parallel plate chamber with DOSE1 electrometer in WP1-D water phantom for reference field size of 15 x 15 cm 2 at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. The results show that the difference between TRS 398 and TRS 381 was about 0.24% to 1.3% depending upon the energy, and the maximum difference between TRS 398 and TRS 277 was 1.5%. The use of cylindrical chamber in electron beam gives the maximum dose difference between the TRS 398 and TRS 277 in the order of 1.4% for energies above 10 MeV (R 50 > 4 g/cm 2 ). It was observed that the accuracy of dose estimation was better with the protocols based on the water calibration procedures, as no conversion quantities are involved for conversion of dose from air to water. The cross-calibration procedure of parallel plate chamber with high-energy electron beams is recommended as it avoids p wall correction factor entering into the determination of k Q,Qo .
Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472  [cached]
Carini F.,Pellizzoni M.,Giosuè S.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122406002
Abstract: This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.
Determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams-comparison of the standards DIN 6800-2 (1997), IAEA TRS 398 (2000) and DIN 6800-2 (2006)  [cached]
Zakaria Golam,Schuette Wilhelm
Journal of Medical Physics , 2007,
Abstract: For the determination of the absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams the IAEA code of practice TRS-398 (2000) is applied internationally. In Germany, the German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (1997) is used. Recently, the DIN standard has been revised and published as Draft National Standard DIN 6800-2 (2006). It has adopted widely the methodology and dosimetric data of the code of practice. This paper compares these three dosimetry protocols systematically and identifies similarities as well as differences. The investigation was done with 6 and 18 MV photon as well as 5 to 21 MeV electron beams. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, measurements of electron beams were performed using cylindrical as well as plane-parallel chambers. The discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water between the three protocols were 0.4% for photon beams and 1.5% for electron beams. Comparative measurements showed a deviation of less than 0.5% between our measurements following protocol DIN 6800-2 (2006) and TLD inter-comparison procedure in an external audit.
IAEA nuclear databases for applications
Schwerer, Otto;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332003000200011
Abstract: the nuclear data section (nds) of the international atomic energy agency (iaea) provides nuclear data services to scientists on a worldwide scale with particular emphasis on developing countries. more than 100 data libraries are made available cost-free by internet, cd-rom and other media. these databases are used for practically all areas of nuclear applications as well as basic research. an overview is given of the most important nuclear reaction and nuclear structure databases, such as exfor, cinda, endf, nsr, ensdf, nudat, and of selected special purpose libraries such as fendl, ripl, rnal, the iaea photonuclear data library, and the iaea charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production. the nds also coordinates two international nuclear data centre networks and is involved in data development activities (to create new or improve existing data libraries when the available data are inadequate) and in technology transfer to developing countries, e.g. through the installation and support of the mirror web site of the iaea nuclear data services at ipen (operational since march 2000) and by organizing nuclear-data related workshops. by encouraging their participation in iaea co-ordinated research projects and also by compiling their experimental results in databases such as exfor, the nds helps to make developing countries' contributions to nuclear science visible and conveniently available. the web address of the iaea nuclear data services is http://www-nds.iaea.org and the nds mirror service at ipen (brasil) can be accessed at http://www-nds.ipen.br/
IAEA nuclear databases for applications  [cached]
Schwerer Otto
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides nuclear data services to scientists on a worldwide scale with particular emphasis on developing countries. More than 100 data libraries are made available cost-free by Internet, CD-ROM and other media. These databases are used for practically all areas of nuclear applications as well as basic research. An overview is given of the most important nuclear reaction and nuclear structure databases, such as EXFOR, CINDA, ENDF, NSR, ENSDF, NUDAT, and of selected special purpose libraries such as FENDL, RIPL, RNAL, the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library, and the IAEA charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production. The NDS also coordinates two international nuclear data centre networks and is involved in data development activities (to create new or improve existing data libraries when the available data are inadequate) and in technology transfer to developing countries, e.g. through the installation and support of the mirror web site of the IAEA Nuclear Data Services at IPEN (operational since March 2000) and by organizing nuclear-data related workshops. By encouraging their participation in IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects and also by compiling their experimental results in databases such as EXFOR, the NDS helps to make developing countries' contributions to nuclear science visible and conveniently available. The web address of the IAEA Nuclear Data Services is http://www-nds.iaea.org and the NDS mirror service at IPEN (Brasil) can be accessed at http://www-nds.ipen.br/
Reference Dosimetry according to the New German Protocol DIN 6800-2 and Comparison with IAEA TRS 398 and AAPM TG 51*  [PDF]
A Zakaria,W Schuette,C Younan
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.2.e15
Abstract:
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Diplomacy of Sustainable International Nuclear Security  [PDF]
Martin Uadiale
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: The increasing threat and proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and materials across national and international boundaries have combined to pose severe threat to the stability of the international system. In this respect, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has through its robust activities helped to enthrone the virtues of sustainable Nuclear security in our fast, but ever-changing world. This study concluded the IAEA, regardless of its numerous short comings, have proved to be an all important and quintessential instrument for strengthening sustainable Nuclear security, International Diplomacy, peace and security in the International system. Some reasonable but, indeed very practicable solutions as to how the agency could help mitigate the threat and challenges of Nuclear security in the face of the looming dangers from non-State actors in the International system such as the abolition of Nuclear Weapons by Nuclear States and national governments to the resolution of political conflict without the use of force was recommended.
一个新的时序推理系统TRS
丁占鳌
计算机科学 , 1993,
Abstract: 本文分析了 J.F.Allen 的时序推理算法的局限性,给出了一种新的有效算法,并基于 ATMS系统的特点,建立了一个新的时序推理系统 TRS。
The X-ray Transient XTE J2012+381  [PDF]
R. I. Hynes,P. Roche,P. A. Charles,M. J. Coe
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02653.x
Abstract: We present optical and infrared observations of the soft X-ray transient (SXT) XTE J2012+381 and identify the optical counterpart with a faint red star heavily blended with a brighter foreground star. The fainter star is coincident with the radio counterpart and appears to show weak H alpha emission and to have faded between observations. The RXTE/ASM lightcurve of XTE J2012+381 is unusual for an SXT in that after an extended linear decay, it settled into a plateau state for about 40 days before undergoing a weak mini-outburst. We discuss the nature of the object and suggest similarities to long orbital period SXTs.
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