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Two new records of smut fungi for Panama and new combinations into the genus Tolyposporium
Meike Piepenbring,Efsun Yilmaz,Jascha L.F. Weisenborn
Tropical Plant Pathology , 2013,
Abstract: Two species of smut fungi (Basidiomycota) are reported here for the first time for Panama. Narasimhania alismatis (Doassansiales) was found on Sagittaria guayanensis and Tolyposporium kuwanoanum (Ustilaginales) on Cyperus tenuis, a new species of host plant. The name of the latter fungus is a new combination based on the currently accepted name Ustanciosporium kuwanoanum. This species belongs to the genus Tolyposporium because of sori with peridia, teliospores in balls, teliospores without hyaline appendages, and LSU rDNA sequence data. Ustanciosporium cyperi is morphologically rather similar to T. kuwanoanum, so it is also placed into the genus Tolyposporium. The concept of the genus Tolyposporium is discussed.
THECAPHORA AFFINIS, A SMUT SPECIES NEW TO CHINA
楔孢黑粉菌中国新记录种

王生荣,郭林
菌物学报 , 2002,
Abstract: During a mycological expedition to Tianzhu County of Gansu Province in 2000,sevence interesting smut fungi have collected by Wang Sheng-Rong.
Mycodiversity of xylophilous basidiomycetes (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in Mondaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil II: A new addition
Marisa de Campos-Santana,Clarice Loguercio-Leite
Biotemas , 2010,
Abstract: In a recent survey on xylophilous basidiomycetes (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in the municipality of Mondaí (Santa Catarina, Brazil), fifteen previously unrecorded species were identified; all of them are white-rotting basidiomycetes.
Magic Mushrooms: Screening for Novel Biocatalysts in the Phylum Basidiomycota  [PDF]
Christoph Loderer, Marion B. Ansorge-Schumacher
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.711043
Abstract: The ascending application of enzymes in organic synthesis creates a growing demand for novel biocatalysts. The applied methods for their identification range from microbial enrichment cultures over metagenome screenings to solely computational methods. In this communication, we demonstrate a straightforward screening approach for the detection of novel biocatalysts in fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota. It basically relies on mincing of the whole fruit bodies of freshly collected mushrooms with subsequent direct screening. Suitability was demonstrated with eight different mushrooms which were investigated for carbonyl reductase activity on sterically demanding carbonyl compounds. The results indicate the presence of potentially useful carbonyl reductases (KREDs) in all tested fungi. Closer characterization of the preparation from pigskin poison puffball (Scleroderma citrinum) showed the presence of KRED exhibiting a broad substrate range. Thus, applicability of this low-tech screening approach could be verified in this study.
Plant or fungal sequences? An alternative optimized PCR protocol to avoid ITS (nrDNA) misamplification
Miranda, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira de;Martins, Vanderlei Geraldo;Furlan, Antonio;Bacci Jr., Maurício;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132010000100018
Abstract: the nuclear ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) from leaves of drosera (droseraceae) were amplified using "universal" primers. the analysis of the products demonstrated most samples were a molecular mixture as a result of unsuccessful and non-specific amplifications. among the obtained sequences, two were from basidiomycota fungi. homologous sequences of basidiomycota were obtained from genbank database and added to a data set with sequences from drosera leaves. parsimony analysis demonstrated that one sequence was amplified from an ustilaginomycetes fungus, and another from a heterobasidiomycetes. possibly these fungi were associated to leaves of drosera, and not because of samples contamination. in order to provide optimization and a better specificity of pcr (polymerase chain reaction), a very successful method was demonstrated using dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) and bovine serum albumin (bsa) in reactions.
Adaptation of the Spore Discharge Mechanism in the Basidiomycota  [PDF]
Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski, Yunluan Cui, M. Henry H. Stevens, Diana J. Davis, Mark W. F. Fischer, Nicholas P. Money
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004163
Abstract: Background Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1–2 mm have been reported for these fungi. In mushroom-forming species, however, spores are propelled over much shorter ranges. In gilled mushrooms, for example, discharge distances of <0.1 mm ensure that spores do not collide with opposing gill surfaces. The way in which the range of the mechanism is controlled has not been studied previously. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report high-speed video analysis of spore discharge in selected basidiomycetes ranging from yeasts to wood-decay fungi with poroid fruiting bodies. Analysis of these video data and mathematical modeling show that discharge distance is determined by both spore size and the size of the Buller's drop. Furthermore, because the size of Buller's drop is controlled by spore shape, these experiments suggest that seemingly minor changes in spore morphology exert major effects upon discharge distance. Conclusions/Significance This biomechanical analysis of spore discharge mechanisms in mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives is the first of its kind and provides a novel view of the incredible variety of spore morphology that has been catalogued by traditional taxonomists for more than 200 years. Rather than representing non-selected variations in micromorphology, the new experiments show that changes in spore architecture have adaptive significance because they control the distance that the spores are shot through air. For this reason, evolutionary modifications to fruiting body architecture, including changes in gill separation and tube diameter in mushrooms, must be tightly linked to alterations in spore morphology.
Biological seed treatment for the control of loose smut of wheat  [cached]
DHARAM SINGH and V.K. MAHESHWARl
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Loose smut of wheat caused by Ustilago segetum var. tritici was controlled almost completely through seed treatment with any of the bioagents like Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum; Pseudomonas fluorescence and Gliocladium virens in combination with vitavax @ 0.125% during three years of trial from 1996 to 1998. The values of smut control were even better than full dose of vita vax (0.25%). The per
Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes
Roxana Yockteng, Sylvain Marthey, Hélène Chiapello, Annie Gendrault, Michael E Hood, Fran?ois Rodolphe, Benjamin Devier, Patrick Wincker, Carole Dossat, Tatiana Giraud
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-272
Abstract: A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE.This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.Deciphering the molecular mechanisms involved in infection is important for the control of devastating crop diseases. Furthermore, the comparison of pathogenicity-related genes from different fungi provides insight into the evolution of host-pathogen interactions, thereby advancing our understanding of host specificity, virulence, and the emergence of new diseases. Modern sequencing technologies have led to a remarkable increase in genomic data available for identifying genes by similarity searches [1]. Key genes involved in pathogenicity in several fungi have been compiled into the PHI database [2].In the smut fungi of monocot hosts (e.g. Ustilago maydis and U. hordei, major pathogens of corn and barley, respectively), the sexual phase and the genes linked to the mating-type loci play a key role in development and pathogenicity [3]. Mating-type loci determine sexual compatibility: only individuals differing at these loci can mate. In U. maydis, cell recognition and fusion is regulated by a pheromone/receptor system that resides at the a locus. After fusion, the dikaryon is maintained and cells switch to filamentous growth if they are het
Management of grain smut (Macaipinomyces sharmae) in little millet  [cached]
A.K. JAIN* and S.K. TRIPATHI
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Grain smut caused by Macalpinomyces sharmae is a serious disease of little millet and inflict considerable reduction in grain yield. Average grain smut incidence ranging from 5.9 to 31.0% and 5.0 to 7.8% was recorded in fields at Rewa and Dindori centers of Madhya Pradesh during 1997 to 2005. Early maturing cultivars (up to 70 days) namely OlM 20, OlM 23, OlM 45, DlM 80, DlM 93, DlM 314, DlM 369, RlM 36 and JK 8 were found susceptible to grain smut. Cultivars having more than 100 days maturity period were found completely free. Reduction in grain yield plant was recorded 9.8 to 53.55 % in different cultivars, where as, reduction in plant height was 4.2 to 16.6% and in panicle length 6.4 to 38.9%. Seed treatment with carboxin @ 2 g kg·1 seed + one foliar spray of carbendazim (0.05%) was found most effective followed by seed treatment + one foliar spray of carbendazim. (0.05%), but highest B:C ratio was recorded in seed treatment alone with carboxin or carbendazim @ 2 g kg·
Ascomycota has a faster evolutionary rate and higher species diversity than Basidiomycota
HaiYing Wang,ShouYu Guo,ManRong Huang,Lumbsch H. Thorsten,JiangChun Wei
Science China Life Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-010-4063-8
Abstract: Differences in rates of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions among major groups of organisms are repeatedly found and well documented. A growing body of evidence suggests a link between the rate of neutral molecular change within populations and the evolution of species diversity. More than 98% of terrestrial fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. The former is considerably richer in number of species than the latter. We obtained DNA sequences of 21 protein-coding genes from the lichenized fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and used them together with sequences from GenBank for subsequent analyses. Three datasets were used to test rate discrepancies between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and that within Ascomycota: (i) 13 taxa including 105 protein-coding genes, (ii) nine taxa including 21 protein-coding genes, and (iii) nuclear LSU rDNA of 299 fungal species. Based on analyses of the 105 protein-coding genes and nuclear LSU rDNA datasets, we found that the evolutionary rate was higher in Ascomycota than in Basidiomycota. The differences in substitution rates between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were significant. Within Ascomycota, the species-rich Sordariomycetes has the fastest evolutionary rate, while Leotiomycetes has the slowest. Our results indicate that the main contribution to the higher substitution rates in Ascomycota does not come from mutualism, ecological conditions, sterility, metabolic rate or shorter generation time, but is possibly caused by the founder effect. This is another example of the correlation between species number and evolutionary rates, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the founder effect is responsible for accelerated substitution rates in diverse clades.
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