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Strategies for Preventing and Managing Overweight and Obesity
Elvis I. Agbonlahor,Grace O. Ikhioya,Richard O. Okaka
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to reveal the various strategies for preventing and managing overweight and obesity in relation to reducing morbidity and mortality due to overweight and obesity. Thus, overweight and obesity are defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and > 30.0 kg/m2 respectively. Overweight and obesity are complex multifactorial chronic diseases that develop from an interaction of genotype and the environment. It was therefore concluded that overweight and obesity involve the interaction of social, behavioural, cultural, physiological, metabolic and genetic factors. Thus, it was recommended that multi-component intervention which include nutrition and physical activities and strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity, pharmacological and behavioural skills development and training could help to prevent and manage overweight and obesity.
Public Health Nutrition & Obesity
Andrea Begley
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Andrea Begley, program leader in nutrition and dietetics at Curtin University explores the extent to which health policy contributes to obesity.
Chemical Basis for the Phytotoxicity of Indoles in Relation to the Allelopathy of Cereals  [PDF]
Héctor R. Bravo, Sylvia Copaja
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.911101
Abstract: Phytotoxic activity of an indole series substituted with electron-acceptor and electron-donor groups in the aromatic ring was determined. They are potential decomposition products, of natural indole alkaloids in cereals plants with allelopathic properties. Phytotoxic selectivity was evaluated from antialgal activity against the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, seed germination seeds and biomass weight of seedling of barley, rye, wheat, oat and maize species and the weed Lolium rigidum. Lipophilia character of the compounds was determined by RP-HPLC method. Both, the electronic character of the substituents, evaluated from σp parameter, and the lipophilia character of the molecules measured from logPHPLC parameter, are involved in the phytotoxic activity. The three bio indicators has shown that the compounds with the higher electron-acceptor groups showed the higher level of phytotoxicity and the molecules with electron-donor groups showed the lowest activity, although, in some cases, this behavior is modified by the lipophilic properties of the molecules. These results are rationalized in terms of polarization of N-H bond of heterocyclic ring. Compounds with the higher logPHPLC values showed the higher phytotoxic activity. Further evidence on the role of lipophilicity was obtained from linear regression between the average inhibitions percentages of biomass and logPHPLC values. The activity increased linearly by increasing the lipophilic character of the compounds. Therefore, quantitative effects in the phytotoxic activity of the electronic properties of the substituents in the aromatic ring and lipophilic character of the indoles can be inferred from σp and logPHPLC parameters, respectively. The results strongly suggest that the potential decomposition products of the natural indole alkaloids from cereals or other natural sources may be in connection with the allelopathic phenomenon of plants when are released into the soil.
Diabetes, Obesity and the Nutrition Transition in the Mercosur  [PDF]
Tatiane Andreazza Lucchese, Amanda Maia Breis, Karine Rucker, Vagner Rosa Bizarro, Lis Marina Mesquita Araújo, Alessandre Gomes, Mikele Torino Paletti, Ana Luísa Concei??o de Jesus, Marcella Garcez Duarte, Denise Rosso Tenório Wanderley Rocha, Alberto Krayyem Arbex
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2016.61005
Abstract: Diabetes and obesity are major health hazards in Latin America nowadays. Their prevalence hassteadily increased since the eighties. Today, more than 50% of the population are overweight, 15%has obesity and 6% to 15% has diabetes. The nutrition transition is a long-termprocess that brings chronic metabolic diseases as an undesired consequence, whilst ultra processedfoods become increasingly part of daily food choices. These changes bring impacts in all fields of daily life, especially in the economic and legal fields—the “Right to Health”—and regarding autonomy of the individual and their choices, when confronted with an ideal of health and well-being. Governments and citizens struggle to propose new pathways and find effective solutions to control both epidemics and solve these issues. This article poses the evolution of diabetes and obesity in the Mercosur, seeking a better understanding of these chronic, non-communicable diseases, and looking for concrete, effective solutions towards health in South America.
Preventing Long-Term Risk of Obesity for Two Generations: Prenatal Physical Activity Is Part of the Puzzle  [PDF]
Stephanie-May Ruchat,Michelle F. Mottola
Journal of Pregnancy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/470247
Abstract: Background. The period surrounding pregnancy has been identified as a risk period for overweight/obesity in both mother and child because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). The promotion of a healthy GWG is therefore of paramount importance in the context of the prevention of obesity in the current and next generations. Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of prenatal physical activity interventions, alone or in combination with nutritional counselling, on GWG and to address whether preventing excessive GWG decreases the incidence of infant high birth weight and/or postpartum weight retention. Method. A search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Nineteen studies were included in this review: 13 interventions combining physical activity, nutrition, and GWG counselling and 6 interventions including physical activity alone. Results. Prenatal lifestyle interventions promoting healthy eating and physical activity habits appear to be the most effective approach to prevent excessive GWG. Achievement of appropriate GWG may also decrease the incidence of high infant birth weight and postpartum weight retention. Conclusion. Healthy eating habits during pregnancy, combined with an active lifestyle, may be important elements in the prevention of long-term risk of obesity for two generations. 1. Introduction There has been a significant increase over the past few decades in the prevalence of maternal overweight (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25?kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30?kg/m2). In the United States, data from the “Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System” in nine states indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increased from 13% to 22% between 1993 and 2002 [1]. Worldwide population estimates of pre-pregnancy overweight is approximately 34% [2, 3] and that of pre-pregnancy obesity is 25% [4]. Women who enter pregnancy either normal weight or overweight/obese are at an increased risk of developing obesity or increasing BMI categories because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). 1.1. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain: A Link with Obesity Risk in Mother and Child Excessive GWG has been associated with short- and long-term adverse maternal and infant outcomes [5]. Large weight gain has been linked to postpartum weight retention, which in turn has been associated with long-term risk of maternal obesity [6–11]. Excessive GWG has also been associated with adverse infant outcomes, such as an increased risk of being heavier and fatter at birth [8, 12–15], which increases the infant’s risk of becoming
Gestational nutrition and the development of obesity during adulthood  [cached]
Rajendra Raghow
World Journal of Diabetes , 2012, DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v3.i11.178
Abstract: Recent epidemiological studies indicate a strong link between intrauterine under-nutrition and propensity of such offspring for developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Garg et al investigated the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon and its potential reversibility in rats. The authors found that rats experiencing gestational under-nutrition but fed normally after birth (IUGR) gained body mass with excessive subcutaneous and visceral fat. The IUGR rats were also metabolically inflexible since they showed similar rates of energy expenditure and O2 consumption in the fed and fasted states. However, if such pups were food-restricted during lactation (PNGR), their metabolic profiles resembled those of control and IPGR (subject to food restriction during pre- and postnatal periods) rats. Thus, postnatal caloric restriction superimposed on intrauterine under nutrition significantly improved insulin sensitivity and adiposity of rats that would otherwise develop metabolic inflexibility and visceral obesity. The observations of Garg et al, have serious implications in term of the design of the future experimental studies as well as their clinical translation in humans.
Prevention of child obesity as a measure of preventing malignant diseases
Mirilov Jelena M.,Bjelica Artur L.
Archive of Oncology , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0404213m
Abstract: Numerous investigations documented that there is a significant correlation between obesity and the onset of malignant neoplasms. It has been known for decades that Vojvodina is an area characterized by frequent occurrence of obesity with adult population, which starts much earlier in childhood. Good knowledge of incidence in child obesity is a first step in the prevention of malignant diseases. The study encompassed the anthropometric measurements (body height and body weight) of 3298 boys and 3146 girls aged from 6 to 15 years, from 10 primary schools of the wider area of the city of Novi Sad. The measurement data served as the basis to calculate the body mass index (BMI). On the basis of BMI the incidence of the overall obesity (3P85) among the examined boys on the territory of Novi Sad community was found to be 16.59%. Overweight (P85 - P95) was observed in 10.28%, and obesity (3P95) in 6.31% boys. The analysis of the nutrition status among the examined schoolgirls on the territory of Novi Sad community, on the basis of BMI, showed that overall obesity (3P85) was present in 14.69% of schoolgirls; overweight (P85 - P95) was found in 9.38%, and obesity (3P95) in 5.31% of the examined schoolgirls. The high percentage of obese schoolchildren cannot be considered as desirable, especially if it is taken into account that there has been a significant increase compared with the previous examination.
Obesity: Nutrition and Genetics—A Short Narrative Review  [PDF]
José M. Tallon, Janine Narciso, Ana Barros, Ana Pereira, Aldo M. Costa, António J. Silva
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1012134
Abstract: Obesity has become a major global health challenge and it is a risk factor for the development of several comorbid conditions. Additionally, obesity has considerable economic consequences. Obesity is a multifactorial condition that arises from independent influences of genetic and social-environmental factors on food intake and physical activity. It has been difficult to establish clear associations between weight status and the intake of single foods or food groups. In most people, the predisposition to obesity has a polygenic basis, which means that obesity will develop if an individual has several polygenic variants that increase body weight. The FTO gene was the first GWAS-identified obesity-susceptibility gene and since then other polygenic variants that are associated with BMI and dietary intake have also been identified. However, this is still an active area of research as more polygenetic variants await discovery.
Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis  [PDF]
Masahito Shimizu,Masaya Kubota,Takuji Tanaka,Hisataka Moriwaki
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010579
Abstract: Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.
NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 1): OBESITY, THE METABOLIC SYNDROME, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, AND CANCER  [cached]
Artemis P. Simopoulos
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: The proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nutrition and Fitness held in Athens, Greece, on June 91-2, 2004 are presented in the book as the first volume of the series. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on nutrition and fitness by taking into consideration i) genetic endowment, ii) adaptation to the nutritional factors and the effect of various resources of energy on exercise and performance, iii) the epidemiology of obesity, iv) the relationship of nutrition and fitness to chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, syndrome X, obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer). The book also discusses the classification system of obesity in several countries and compares the diets used in several regions/countries. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of three parts with sub-sections in three of them. The topics of the parts are: i) Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, ii) Coronary Heart Disease and iii) Cancer. In each specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in cardiovascular system, nutrition, metabolism, social and preventive medicine, clinical nutrition, diabetics, genetics, obesity, public health, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in pediatric injuries and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome.
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