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Resident training in pathology: General overview
Beyhan DEM?RHAN
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: The chaos in the law related to “regulations of medical specialty” has negative effect on the training of pathology residency programs in our country. There are enormous effort to close the gap by the medical specialists via their societies or federations. Training in pathology commission of Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has finished their work related to “The schedule of training of pathology residency” and “logbook”. The panel deals with training in pathology residency are part of these efforts. Requirements of rotations to the other institutions were treated too. It is considered more appropriate that the federation regulates rotations for sub specializations. Systematic approach is requiring for education. Each pathology department should have an education team. It is recommended that a senior pathologist become the head of the team. This organization could solve the most of the problems. Satisfaction of residents and trainers will be increased by the schedule of training of pathology residency; logbook, written feedbacks and competency based resident training and assessment that organized by these education teams/units.
Resident training in pathology: Expectations and suggestions  [cached]
Banu B?LEZ?K??,?zge HAN,Gül?in ALTINOK,Murat ALPER
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: In this report, we summarized the result of the panel discussion about pathology residency training program. Especially, training atmosphere including laboratories, rotations, evaluation of autopsy, macroscopy, microscopy, and general resident responsibilities were discussed. Obligation of standardization of residency training program was stressed.
Resident training in pathology: Results of questionnaires
?pek I??k G?NüL,Gül?in ALTINOK,Murat ALPER,Ata Türker ARIK?K
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to discuss the training of pathology residents from the points of wave of themselves and their tutors and reveal the problems.For this purpose, representatives of 4 Universities, 5 State hospitals and Gülhane Military Medical Academy have prepared 2 types of questionnaires in order to the serving capacities of their institutions and the opinions of the tutors working in that departments on training of pathology residents.According to the results, the number of biopsy and cytological materials together with number of faculty is sufficient for all institutions. Both histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have been applied in all institutions. However, only one state hospital has been performing immunoflourescence technique. It is noticeable to see 2 state hospitals do not have any documents on written job description, which summarizes the authority and responsibility of the pathology residents. Another significant conclusion is that the answers of the tutors for the assistant's job description and their responsibility in the training process are very heterogeneous. Time spent for gross examination by tutors was found to be insufficient by 58% of themselves. Although “written feedbacks for residents and tutors” is only being applied in 2 Universities, the majority of the tutors who have participated in the questionnaire have agreed upon the necessity of them for all institutions (95.4% and 93.8%, respectively).
Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view  [cached]
Kemal K?SEMEHMETO?LU,Berrak GüMü?KAYA ?CAL,Esra Zeynep CO?KUNO?LU,?lke ?ULHA
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1) Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg.) and 2) Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with s
Pathology Residency Training in Turkey from the Residents' Point of View: A Survey Study  [cached]
Kemal K?SEMEHMETO?LU,Ay?a TAN,Tu??e ESEN,K?v?lc?m EREN ATE?
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: Recent insights that have emerged in local meetings with participation of pathology residents are promising as regards achieving progress in pathology residency training. Accordingly, in this study, overall pathology residency training in Turkey is discussed in detail from the pathology residents' point of view; current data and suggestions for the solutions of problems are presented.Material and Method: Two questionnaires were applied to resident representatives and overall residents, respectively, from 23 institutions including 12 Universities and 11 Ministry of Health education and Research Hospitals.Results: The total number of participating residents was 138; 74 from University hospitals and 64 from Education and Research Hospitals. An adequate number of cases per resident, widespread use of multiocular microscopes, increasing number of macroscopy technicians, ongoing educational meetings and renewal projects of the physical environment were the positive findings. However, the lack of autopsy practice, insufficient number of lectures, communication problems between resident and senior staff due to inadequate feedback mechanism, insufficient numbers of academic staff in education and research hospitals and lack of educational material in some basic branches of surgical pathology were negative findings. During pathology training, the major stress factor was the pathology workload inhibiting optimal learning. Feedback provision and scheduled working habits were the two qualities, which were needed to be improved by senior staff. Two fields, suggested by the senior residents to be incompetent were intraoperative consultation and cytopathology. When overall satisfaction for pathology residency training was considered, it was near 80% in Universities, while it remained around 40% in Education and Research Hospitals (p=0.000).Conclusion: Positive and negative aspects addressed in this survey will provide data for the new regulations in pathology residency training in Turkey.
Neurocritical Care Training for the Neurosurgery Resident  [PDF]
Paul EKaloostian, Jennifer Kim, Howard Yonas
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.32003
Abstract:

Introduction: Recent data has associated favorable outcomes in patients who were treated in a “semi-closed” intensive care unit and attended to by a devoted team of neurointensivists as opposed to the neurosurgeons. This has led many to question the need for dedicated critical care education in the neurosurgical residency training program. Our aim was to determine what current neurosurgery residents and program directors/chairman thoughts were on NCC education in neurosurgical resident training, and to discuss possible methods to allow for collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgeons. Methods: Surveys were sent out electronically to all residency programs. Thirty-nine responses from junior residents, 36 responses from senior/chief residents, and eight responses from program directors/chairman were obtained. Results: No statistical difference between the majority responses of the different level residents, and between program directors/chairman and combined resident responses. Conclusions: Clearly, neurosurgery residents of all levels and program directors/chairman value NCC education and see a valuable role for this knowledge in their future. Most residents however do not want to spend an additional year of fellowship training to become certified neurointensivists. We discuss the role of NCC education in residency training and possible solutions to allow collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgical team.

Challenges of dermatology training among internal medicine resident doctors in Nigeria
OE Okoro, AO Ogunbiyi, AO George, TO Bello
Jos Journal of Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The scope of dermatology training varies in teaching hospitals across Nigeria. In some institutions, there is a department of dermatology while in others it is a unit in the internal medicine department. Some medical schools have clinical postings in dermatology while others do not. Although the number of dermatologists in the country has increased compared with a few years back when they were a handful, the numbers are still inadequate to train other health practitioners on skin disorders and to meet the needs of patients. The objective of the study was to determine the perceived challenges by residents with regards to dermatology training so as to provide adequate training and ultimately increase the number of dermatologist in the country Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study among resident doctors in internal medicine attending the update course of the National Postgraduate Medical College in April 2012 at Lagos using a selfadministered questionnaire. Data was analysed with SPSS 16. Result: Ninety resident doctors (58 pre-part 1 and 32 post part 1) answered the questionnaire. Seventy two (80.9%) had at least one dermatologist currently in their training institution. Sixty seven (76.1%) of the respondents (35 pre-part 1 and 32 post-part 1) had undergone postings in dermatology. The length of training varied from 1- 6 months. Sixty (66.7%) of the residents had dermatology posting as undergraduates in medical school with the length of the posting ranging from 2-6 weeks (30.0% for two weeks, 23.3% for four weeks and 41.7% for more than four weeks). Residents felt they had inadequate exposure to procedural dermatology (surgery, lasers, aesthetic), dermatopathology and management of wounds. Inadequate research opportunity (55.9%), inadequate mentors (53.2%), and inadequate facilities (53.2%) were more important challenges to dermatology training perceived by more than 50% of the residents. Conclusion: Dermatology training at both undergraduate and post graduate level in Nigeria is variable in content and duration amongst training institutions in Nigeria. There is need to standardise undergraduate and postgraduate Dermatology training. Training institution should operate a standard structured dermatology posting for undergraduate training and adhere to available curriculums provided by the postgraduate colleges for postgraduate training. Adequate facilities should be provided in the training centres and were these are not in place candidates should go to other centres with adequate training facilities for their postings.
Laparoscopic skill laboratory in urological surgery: tools and methods for resident training
Torricelli, Fabio C. M.;Guglielmetti, Giuliano;Duarte, Ricardo J.;Srougi, Miguel;
International braz j urol , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382011000100014
Abstract: purpose: laparoscopy has certainly brought considerable benefits to patients, but laparoscopic surgery requires a set of skills different from open surgery, and learning in the operating room may increase surgical time, and even may be harmful to patients. several training programs have been developed to decrease these potential prejudices. purposes: to describe the laparoscopic training program for urological residents of the "hospital das clinicas" of the sao paulo medical school, to report urological procedures that are feasible in dry and wet labs, and to perform a critical analysis of the cost-benefit relation of advanced laparoscopic skills laboratory. materials and methods: the laparoscopic skill lab has two virtual simulators, three manual simulators, and four laparoscopic sets for study with a porcine model. the urology residents during their first year attend classes in the virtual and manual simulator and helps the senior urological resident in activities carried out with the laparoscopic sets. during the second year, the urological resident has six periods per week, each period lasting four hours, to perform laparoscopic procedures with a porcine model. results: in a training program of ten weeks, one urological resident performs an average of 120 urological procedures. the most common procedures are total nephrectomy (30%), bladder suture (30%), partial nephrectomy (10%), pyeloplasty (10%), ureteral replacement or transuretero anastomosis (10%), and others like adrenalectomy, prostatectomy, and retroperitoneoscopy. these procedures are much quicker and caused less morbidity. conclusion: laparoscopic skills laboratory is a good method for achieving technical ability.
Effects of the Strategic Values on the Performance of Technical Training Institutions in Meru County, Kenya  [PDF]
George Mungiria Muthaa
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.69001
Abstract: Organizational performance is important in justifying its existence and resources allocation. To enhance performance, strategic values are useful management tools to achieving competitive advantage. For Technical Training Institutions to achieve their core mandate in human resource training, the Government has emphasized on their development and implementation of strategic plans. Technical Training institutions have been operating with strategic plans for at least the last ten years; however no systematic study has been carried out to investigate the influence of their strategic values on the performance of the institutions. The current study sought to investigate the effects of the strategic values on performance in respect to enrolment, resources, quality and efficiency. The study used the cross sectional descriptive survey research design. The study was conducted with the top, middle and lower level management in the three Technical training institutions of Meru County. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Instruments were tested for reliability by use of the Cronbach’s alpha and a correlation coefficient of 0.75 was obtained. Data was analyzed by use of both descriptive and inferential statistics and presented by use of tables and figures. The study established that the strategic values had significant influence on the performance of technical training institutional. The introduction of the government policy has a moderating variable improved the model on strategic value. The researcher recommends the alignment of the institutional philosophy to the institutional strategic values which could improve the performance of Technical Training Institutions.
Construction of the Training Mode of the Combination of Clinical Medical Professional Degree Graduate Education and Resident Standardized Training  [PDF]
Jinjun Li, Qingming Wu, Ting Yu, Yi Zou, Yunjie Li
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.76082
Abstract: Beginning in 2014 as a major education reform in China, the implementation of clinical medicine specialized graduate student training combined with standardized resident training system as well as Chinese clinical medical professional degree system binding with the standardized training of residents becomes the highlight and difficulty of this medical educational reform. Through optimizing clinical medical professional degree graduate training scheme and innovative teaching mode and improving the management system, the specialized degree graduate students will be trained to be truly “Qualified doctor \"and high-level applied talents.
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