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Differential Association of Uncoupling Protein 2 Polymorphisms with Pattern Identification among Korean Stroke Patients: A Diagnostic System in Traditional Korean Medicine
Ji Hye Lim,Mi Mi Ko,Hoyoung Lee,Ho Yeon Go,Tae-Woong Moon,Min Ho Cha,Myeong Soo Lee
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/532078
Abstract: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial protein present in many organs and cell types, is known to dissipate the proton gradient formed by the electron transport chain. Its function is correlated with predictive parameters, such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes. We analyzed the distribution of UCP2 polymorphisms in stroke patients diagnosed with one of the following four stroke subtypes based on the TKM standard pattern identification (PI): Qi-deficiency (QD), Dampness and Phlegm (D&P), Yin-deficiency (YD), and Fire and Heat (F&D). We studied a total of 1,786 stroke patients (397/QD, 645/D&P, 223/YD, and 522/F&D, 586/normal). Genotyping for the G-1957A, G-866A and A55V UCP2 polymorphisms was performed using the TaqMan. G-866A and A55V were significantly associated with the D&P and H&F subtypes. The frequency of subjects with the A allele of G-866A was significantly lower than the frequency of subjects with the GG type. The A55V polymorphism was also shown similar effect with G-866A in the dominant model. In contrast, no SNPs were shown to be associated with the QD or YD subtypes in this study. These results showed that the G-866A and A55V UCP2 polymorphisms may be genetic factors for specific PI types among Korean stroke patients.
Genetic Association of NPY Gene Polymorphisms with Dampness-Phlegm Pattern in Korean Stroke Patients
Mi Mi Ko,Byoung Kab Kang,Ji Hye Lim,Myeong Soo Lee,Min Ho Cha
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/109796
Abstract: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is widely expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, has an important role in a variety of biological fields. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of NPY polymorphisms in dampness-phlegm pattern and non-dampness-phlegm pattern in elderly Korean subjects with cerebral infarction (CI). A total of 1.097 subjects (498 normal subjects and 599 CI patients, including 198 with dampness-phlegm pattern and 401 with non-dampness-phlegm pattern) participated in this study. Genotyping for five SNPs (G-1484A, C-1471T, C-399T, A1201G, and C5325T) was conducted by primer extension. The results were statistically analyzed for genetic association of NPY-polymorphisms with normal versus dampness-phlegm pattern or non-dampness-phlegm pattern subjects. Among the five SNPs tested, the T allele of C-399T has a negative association with the dampness-phlegm pattern and is marked by a decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in dampness-phlegm pattern patients than in non-dampness-phlegm pattern patients.In this study, for the first time, the association of NPY polymorphisms with pattern identification (PI) of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) was analyzed in a large CI patient population.
Reliability and validity of the Korean standard pattern identification for stroke (K-SPI-Stroke) questionnaire
Byoung-Kab Kang, Tae Yong Park, Tae Woong Moon, Ju Ah Lee, Mi Mi Ko, Jiae Choi, Myeong Soo Lee
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-55
Abstract: Between September 2006 and December 2010, 2,905 patients from 11 Korean medical hospitals were asked to complete the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire as a part of project ' Fundamental study for the standardization and objectification of pattern identification in traditional Korean medicine for stroke (SOPI-Stroke). Each patient was independently diagnosed by two TKM physicians from the same site according to one of four patterns, as suggested by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine: 1) a Qi deficiency pattern, 2) a Dampness-phlegm pattern, 3) a Yin deficiency pattern, or 4) a Fire-heat pattern. We estimated the internal consistency using Cronbach’s α coefficient, the discriminant validity using the means score of patterns, and the predictive validity using the classification accuracy of the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire.The K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire had satisfactory internal consistency (α?=?0.700) and validity, with significant differences in the mean of scores among the four patterns. The overall classification accuracy of this questionnaire was 65.2 %.These results suggest that the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for estimating the severity of the four patterns.
Serum proteomes of hypertension patients with abundant phlegm-dampness  [cached]
Yu-guang CHU
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To study the serum proteomes of essential hypertension (EH) patients with abundant phlegm-dampness, and try to find special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome.Methods: Fifty-nine hypertension patients were included, and the patients were divided into abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome group (39 cases) and non-phlegm-dampness syndrome group (20 cases). To find the special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness, the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness and another 30 healthy persons were regarded as control. Weak cation nano-magnetic beads were used to capture proteins in serum, and proteomic fingerprint was made by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All the proteomic fingerprints were analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 Software. Then Biomarker Patterns Software (BPS) 5.0 was used to identify the differentiated proteins, which could induce phlegm-dampness.Results: There were 102 differentiated protein peaks between abundant phlegm-dampness and the control group. The best markers of abundant phlegm-dampness were protein peaks with the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 9 334.958 m/z (the expression increased), 9 280.191 m/z (the expression decreased), 8 030.794 m/z (the expression increased), and 2 941.551 m/z (the expression increased). These four protein peaks found by BPS could induce abundant phlegm-dampness. They could be used to separate the abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome from the healthy persons and the hypertension patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The sensitivity of the model was 93.103% (27/29), specificity was 92% (23/25), false positive rate was 8% (2/25), false negative rate was 6.897% (2/29) and Youden’s index was 85.103%. Blind test data indicated a sensitivity of 90% (9/10) and a specificity of 88% (22/25), and the false positive rate was 12% (3/25), false negative rate was 10% (1/10), and Youden’s index was 78%.Conclusion: The differentiated proteins between the abundant phlegm-dampness group and the control group are the material foundation of abundant phlegm-dampness. The selected differentiated proteins can be used to distinguish the EH patients with abundant phlegm-dampness from the healthy persons and the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The molecular biology diagnosis model can offer an objective and accurate way for TCM syndrome differentiation.
Metabolic Profiles Distinguish Non-Dampness-Phlegm and Dampness-Phlegm Patterns among Korean Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction  [cached]
Min Ho Cha,A. Daniel Jones,Mi Mi Ko,Chen Zhang
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/517018
Abstract:
Effects of Cangfudaotan Tang on Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (oatp2b1) in Liver and Kidney Tissues of Rats with Phlegm Dampness Type Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  [PDF]
Ke Chen, Aizhen Pan, Jianjun Li, Kefang Chen, Xiangping Hou
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2016.74016
Abstract: Objective: To explore the effect of Cangfudaotan Tang on phlegm dampness type of PCOS and the role of oatp2b1 in transportation and transformation of phlegm dampness. Methods: 36 SD female rats were randomly divided into three groups: blank control group, model group and Cangfudaotan Tang group, 12 cases in each one. After PCOS rat models were made, rats of Cangfudaotan Tang group were treated with Cangfudaotan Tang (1.42 g/kg/d) by intragastric administration for 14 days; blank control and model group were given with isodose saline. The expression of oatp2b1 mRNA/Protein in liver and kidney tissues was measured and the level of testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone(LH), Serum total cholesterol (TG), Triacylglycerols (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected at the same time. Results: Compared with blank control group, the expression of oatp2b1 mRNA and the level of TC, TG, LDL, LH, FSH, T in model group were significantly increased (P < 0. 05), while the level of HDL was significantly decreased (P < 0. 05); compared with model group, the expression of oatp2b1 mRNA and the level of TC, TG, LDL in Cangfudaotan Tang group were significantly lowered (P < 0.05); the level of HDL was significantly higher; the oatp2b1 protein in kidney and liver tissues had different degrees of expression, while there was no statistical significance among the three groups. Conclusions: Oatp2b1 might be one of the material bases participating in transportation and transformation of phlegmy dampness. The mechanism of Cangfudaotan Tang treating phlegm dampness type of PCOS may be achieved by regulating the expression of oatp2b1.
The phlegm theory of gastric cancer  [cached]
Jun Shi,Pin-kang Wei
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: : Based on years of ancient literature research and clinical experience, Professor Pin-kang Wei developed the phlegm theory of gastric cancer. In light of the properties of gastric cancer and the method of differentiating syndromes within the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) paradigm, it is believed that gastric cancer is closely related with phlegm. Much ancient literature regarding the relationship between phlegm and gastric cancer was reviewed to explain the rationale and academic inheritance of the phlegm theory. In this theory, gastric cancer is regarded as a form of phlegm stagnation and consists of phlegm core, phlegm collateral and phlegm contamination. In order to explain the mechanism of development, recurrence and metastasis of gastric cancer, phlegm contamination is regarded as the most fundamental cause and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The therapy of resolving phlegm and dispersing nodules is suggested for the fundamental treatment of gastric cancer.
Progress in research on correlation between dampness disease and aquaporin  [cached]
Zi-hui Li,Rong-lin Cai
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: : Pathogenic dampness can cause many diseases, and that is why traditional Chinese medicine pays close attention to pathogenic dampness. In recent years many researches discovered that dampness diseases and aquaporin have close correlation. By analyzing the progress in research on correlation between dampness diseases and aquaporin, it is discovered that aquaporin has close correlation with urinary system, digestive system, respiratory system and central nervous system. Normal expression of aquaporin may be the molecular biological basis of dispelling dampness, while abnormal expression may be one of the main causes for dampness diseases. Studying the correlation between dampness diseases and aquaporin has quite important significance in understanding mechanism of dampness diseases and formulating treatment protocols.
A single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 associated with marbling score in Korean cattle
Hyun Cheong, Du-Hak Yoon, Byung Park, Lyoung Kim, Joon Bae, Sohg Namgoong, Hae Lee, Chang Han, Ji Kim, Il-Cheong Cheong, Hyoung Shin
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-33
Abstract: By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 39 sequence variants within exons and their flanking regions in CAPN1. Among them, 12 common polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in the beef cattle (n = 421). Statistical analysis revealed that a polymorphism in the 3'UTR (c.2151*479C>T) showed significant association with MS (Pcor. = 0.02).Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in CAPN1 might be one of the important genetic factors involved in carcass quality in beef cattle, although it could be false positive association.Genetic improvement has long been considered an important factor in the competitiveness of beef cattle production. Identification of the genes and/or polymorphisms underlying quantitative/qualitative traits, and an understanding of how these genes/polymorphisms interact with the environment or with other genes affecting economic traits might be the keys to successful application of marker-assisted selection in the commercial animal population. As one of these economic traits, marbling is intramuscular fat that gives meat flavor and tenderness. Thus, an increase in the degree of marbling raises the level of meat quality.Calpain is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic cysteine protease, the activity of which is absolutely dependent on calcium [1]. Two genes of calpain (CAPN1 [macro-calpain] and CAPN2 [mili-calpain]) have been identified [2]. CAPN1 degrades myofibrillar proteins under postmortem conditions and appears to be the primary enzyme in the postmortem tenderization process [3-6]. Regulation of CAPN1 activity has been correlated with variation in meat tenderness, and previous studies also identified a quantitative trait locus influencing meat tenderness on chromosome 29 where CAPN1 lies [7-9].In the CAPN1 gene, more than 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in Bos indicus or Bos taurus [8,10,11] (S. N. White and T. Smith, unpublished data). Among them, four polymorphisms, two non-synonymous SNPs (
Evaluation of UCP2 expression in the phenomenon of ischemic resistance induced by alternating normobaric hyperoxia in a rat model of stroke  [cached]
Firoozeh Alavian,Sohrab Hajizadeh,Mohammad Reza Bigdeli,Gholam Reza Bayat
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: ischemic preconditioning is one of the most important mechanisms, responsible for the increased brain resistance after stroke. One of the most important candidates to ischemia preconditioning is intermittent normobaric hyperoxia. In this study, the effect of intermittent normobaric hyperoxia on the expression of UCP2 was investigated in a stroke model. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups (normoxia – sham, hyperoxia – sham, normoxia – stroke and hyperoxia – stroke). Hyperoxia groups were exposed to 95% inspired O2, for 4 h/day and 6 consecutive days. Oxygen level in the control groups was %21 (normoxia). After 24 h, stroke groups were subjected to 60 min of right middle cerebral artery occlusion. After 24 h reperfusion neurological deficit scores were assessed. The brain UCP2 levels were analyzed by western blot. Results: The results of this study showed that following brain ischemia-reperfusion, UCP2 levels significantly increased in the stroke groups compared with the sham group; while there was no significant difference in hyperoxia groups compared with normoxia. Also hyperoxia decreased neurological deficit scores. Conclusion: Following ischemia, oxidative stress caused by increase of ROS, leads to increased UCP2 levels in stroke groups. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of hyperoxia is independent of UCP2 expression.
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