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Genetic Diversity of Lonicera Japonica Cultivars in China
我国金银花栽培品种的遗传多样性

Zhao Dongyue,Li Yong,Ding Wanlong,
赵东岳
,李勇,丁万隆

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2011,
Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of Lonicera japonica cultivars, and provide preference on understanding the genetic relationship of Lonicera japonica cultivars in main producing areas of China and developing new varieties of Lonicera japonica. In the study, a total of eleven Lonicera japonica cultivars and one Lonicera japonica variety were analyzed by RAPD. And statistic data were clustered by software NTSYS version 2.10e. The results showed that 150 distinctive DNA bands were amplified by 17 RAPD primers. And 113 bands of them have polymorphism among Lonicera japonica samples. Furthermore, twelve Lonicera japonica samples can bedivided into four groups by clustering analysis. It is concluded that genetic diversity of Lonicera japonica cultivars from Pingyi of Shandong province was comparatively higher than those from Fengqiu of Henan province and Julu of Hebei province. And genetic relationships of Lonicera japonica samples from different producing areas were corre lated with their geographic distribution.
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb
M.R. Sulaiman,Z.A. Zakaria,S. Moin,M.N. Somchit,Y.S. Chai
Research Journal of Pharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flowers buds in various experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests, while, the anti-inflammatory was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema. The dried flower s buds of L. japonica was added with distilled water (1:10 w v 1) and boiled for 2 h at 80 C. The supernatant collected was freeze-dried overnight and prior to use was diluted to the desired doses. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg kg-1; administered intraperitoneally) exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays used. In conclusion, the flower s buds of L. japonica possessed potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that require further in-depth studies.
Base excision repair in sugarcane
Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F.;Medeiros, Sílvia R. Batistuzzo de;Maggi, Bruno S.;Quaresma, Giovanna A.S.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572001000100017
Abstract: dna damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. this type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. the low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged dna. several dna repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals) have been cloned and their products characterized. the high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to dna repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. in plants, our understanding of dna repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. the objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (ber) pathway, which are present in the database of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (sucest) project. this search was performed by tblastn program. we identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of ber proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. the best results were obtained with ber proteins from arabidopsis thaliana. for some sugarcane ber genes, the presence of more than one form of mrna is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous est cluster.
Base excision repair in sugarcane  [cached]
Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.,Medeiros Sílvia R. Batistuzzo de,Maggi Bruno S.,Quaresma Giovanna A.S.
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2001,
Abstract: DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals) have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.
Mechanisms of wound repair in crayfish  [PDF]
X Vafopoulou
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2009,
Abstract: their regulation using the crayfish as a model system. Injuries to integument precipitate a cascade of cellular events that lead to rapid healing of the wound, regeneration of damaged tissues and repair of the integument. The first step in this cascade is hemolymph clotting and subsequent melanization, events documented thoroughly elsewhere and not discussed here. Wound healing and repair in crayfish involves the action of two physiological systems, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system regulating synthesis of the steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids. Injury promotes a swift rise in hemolymph ecdysteroids to a low, sustained plateau, followed by a premolt peak and molting. The plateau is essential for wound healing since its principal targets are the circulating cells of the immune system, the hemocytes, and healthy epidermal cells and fibrocytes. Massive migration of these cells occurs under the wound and their concerted efforts under ecdysteroid control are paramount to wound healing and repair. These cells are likely engaged in physiological and biochemical activities that promote cell communication and cell to cell adhesion, removal of dead and harmful material and production of molecules essential to tissue regeneration.
Base excision repair and the role of MUTYH
Carla Kairupan, Rodney J Scott
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-5-4-199
Abstract: Base excision repair (BER) is one of the most important DNA repair pathways, which ameliorates environmentally induced DNA damage, including that which arises spontaneously as a result of alkylation, oxidation, and deamination events during normal metabolic processes [1]. BER is also responsible for repairing small, non-helix distorting lesions that may be induced by chemical carcinogens [2]. In addition, it is also responsible for the repair of abasic sites, which may arise spontaneously as a function of temperature fluctuation, or it could arise as intermediates in the DNA repair process [3]. Compared with other repair machinery, such as nucleotide excision repair, the core components of BER machinery have been well conserved from bacteria to humans both structurally and functionally during evolution [4-7], underscoring the vital role BER plays in maintaining genome integrity. BER is believed to be the simplest and most defined of all DNA repair processes. The molecular mechanism of BER has been resolved to the tertiary structure for all core components [8-10].The BER pathway functions by a series of well-coordinated enzymatic events which can overall be divided into two steps. The first step of BER is the recognition and excision of a damaged base or an abasic site by a series of specific DNA glycosylases. The next step involves the sequential action of different proteins which correct DNA by template-directed insertion of one or a few nucleotides, starting at the damaged site.The first step of BER relies on glycosylases that recognize and remove the damaged base through N-glycosylic bond hydrolysis to generate abasic or apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. These AP sites are identical to spontaneous DNA depurination or depyrimidation. Each of the glycosylases has specificity to a relatively narrow, partially overlapping spectrum of lesions, and may function as a monofunctional enzyme (exclusively removes damaged base) or a bifunctional enzyme (removes damaged base
Rottlerin Inhibits Lonicera japonica-Induced Photokilling in Human Lung Cancer Cells through Cytoskeleton-Related Signaling Cascade
Bang-Jau You,Yang-Chang Wu,Bo-Ying Bao,Chi-Yu Wu,Ya-Win Yang,Yu-Hao Chang,Hong-Zin Lee
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/193842
Abstract: This study demonstrated that many apoptotic signaling pathways, such as Rho family, PKC family, MAP kinase family, and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, were triggered by Lonicera japonica extracts and irradiation in CH27 cells. Rottlerin, a PKCδ -selective inhibitor, reversed the photoactivated Lonicera japonica extract-induced decrease in PKCδ protein expression and change in cell morphology in this study. In addition, rottlerin inhibited the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced decrease in protein expression of Ras, ERK, p38, PKCα, and PKCε, which are the kinases of prosurvival signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that pretreatment with rottlerin prevented actin microfilaments and microtubules from damage during the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell death. Furthermore, the promotion of the cytoskeleton-related signaling cascade following rottlerin by upregulation of cytoskeleton-related mediators (p38, HSP27, FAK, paxillin, and tubulin) and molecules of downstream of F-actin (mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway) reduces CH27 cell death, indicating that cytoskeleton is the potential target in the photoactivated Lonicera japonicaextract-induced photokilling of CH27 cells.
Inhibition of nucleotide excision repair by arsenic
Shengwen Shen,Chuan Wang,Michael Weinfeld,X. Chris Le
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5439-x
Abstract: Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism for the co-mutagenicity/co-carcinogenicity of arsenic. This review summarizes the current literature on the effects of arsenic compounds on nucleotide excision repair (NER). Several possible mechanisms for the observed NER inhibition have been proposed. Modulation of the expression of NER proteins has been considered to be one possibility of impairing the NER process. However, data on the effects of arsenic on the expression of NER proteins remain inconsistent. It is more likely that arsenic inhibits the induction of accessory or other key proteins involved in cellular control of DNA repair pathways, such as p53. For example, arsenic affects p53 phosphorylation and p53 DNA binding activity, which could regulate NER through transcriptional activation of downstream NER genes. Although it is important to study possible direct inactivation of NER proteins by arsenic binding, indirect inactivation of proteins having thiol residues critical to their function or zinc finger proteins cannot be negated. For example, nitric oxide (NO) induced in arsenic-treated cells serves as a specific inhibitor of NER, possibly through NO-induced S-nitrosylation of proteins related to DNA repair. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, a zinc finger protein implicated in both NER and base excision repair (BER), deserves special attention because of its involvement in NO production and its broad range of protein substrates including many repair enzymes.
Transcriptome Analysis of Buds and Leaves Using 454 Pyrosequencing to Discover Genes Associated with the Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Lonicera japonica Thunb.  [PDF]
Liu He, Xiaolan Xu, Ying Li, Chunfang Li, Yingjie Zhu, Haixia Yan, Zhiying Sun, Chao Sun, Jingyuan Song, Yu’an Bi, Juan Shen, Ruiyang Cheng, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Shilin Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062922
Abstract: Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral pharmacological properties. The major active secondary metabolites of this plant are chlorogenic acid (CGA) and luteoloside. While the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are relatively well known, the genetic information available for this species, especially the biosynthetic pathways of its active ingredients, is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained one million reads (average length of 400 bp) in a whole sequence run using a Roche/454 GS FLX titanium platform. Altogether, 85.69% of the unigenes covering the entire life cycle of the plant were annotated and 325 unigenes were assigned to secondary metabolic pathways. Moreover, 2039 unigenes were predicted as transcription factors. Nearly all of the possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of CGA and luteoloside were discovered in L. japonica. Three hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes, including two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes and one hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) gene featuring high similarity to known genes from other species, were cloned. The HCT gene was discovered for the first time in L. japonica. In addition, 188 candidate cytochrome P450 unigenes and 245 glycosyltransferase unigenes were found in the expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset. Conclusion This study provides a high quality EST database for L. japonica by 454 pyrosequencing. Based on the EST annotation, a set of putative genes involved in CGA and luteoloside biosynthetic pathways were discovered. The database serves as an important source of public information on genetic markers, gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in L. japonica.
Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Hannes Lans,Wim Vermeulen
Molecular Biology International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/542795
Abstract: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vitro and live cell experiments, particularly using model systems such as bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell cultures. In recent years, the versatility of the nematode C. elegans to study DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms including NER has become increasingly clear. In particular, C. elegans seems to be a convenient tool to study NER during the UV response in vivo, to analyze this process in the context of a developing and multicellular organism, and to perform genetic screening. Here, we will discuss current knowledge gained from the use of C. elegans to study NER and the response to UV-induced DNA damage. 1. DNA Damage Response Mechanisms To preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation, cells are equipped with a variety of DNA repair pathways and associated DNA damage responses, collectively referred to as the DNA damage response (DDR). DNA is continuously damaged by environmental and metabolism-derived genotoxic agents. It is vital for cells and organisms to properly cope with DNA damage, because unrepaired damage can give rise to mutation and cell death. The importance of the DDR is illustrated by several human cancer prone and/or progeroid hereditary diseases, which are based on defects in the DDR. Over the last decades, a wealth of information on the molecular mechanism of different repair pathways has been gathered from detailed in vitro and live cell studies. Currently, this acquired knowledge is being used to develop therapeutic strategies to treat patients suffering from the consequences of unrepaired DNA damage, such as cancer and aging [1]. Damage is repaired by different DNA repair pathways depending on the type of DNA lesion, genomic location, and the cell cycle phase (for reviews see [2–4]). Lesions originating from different genotoxic sources can range from small base modifications to double-strand breaks. Small base modifications, such as oxidative lesions which do not substantially distort the double helix, are repaired by base excision repair (BER). BER removes single or several bases and repairs the gap by DNA synthesis. Bigger
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