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Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Properties of Calendula officinalis Extracts in Mice Treated with Methyl Methanesulfonate
Advances in Life Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.als.20120202.05
Abstract: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine for centuries to treat several diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity potential of the Calendula officinalis L. The CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (250 or 500 mg/Kg) or aqueous (90 mg/Kg) extracts of C. officinalis for 2 weeks prior to treatment with saline or methyl methanesulfonate. No genotoxic or mutagenic effect was observed at the doses of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. officinalis in blood and bone marrow samples from animals after 2 weeks of treatment, analyzed by the Comet assay and Micronucleus test, respectively. In addition, ethanolic extracts in both doses (250 or 500 mg/Kg) and aqueous extracts (90 mg/Kg) of this plant showed an antigenotoxic effect by Comet assay, repairing the DNA damage caused by MMS. At the Micronucleus test only aqueous extract of C. officinalis revealed a protector effect to genetic material. These results suggest that all the extracts of C. officinalis contained protective substances that decreasing damage to genetic material. Despite this protective or antigenotoxic effect from this plant, it should be used with caution by the population.
Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of organic extracts of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on V79 cells
Guterres, Zaira da Rosa;Mantovani, Mário Sérgio;Eira, Augusto Ferreira da;Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina;Jord?o, Berenice Quinzani;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572005000300022
Abstract: agaricus blazei murrill, popularly known as the sun mushroom, is a native mushroom in sp, brazil, that has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and many other pathologies in different parts of the world. a water-soluble protein-polysaccharide complex (1 ? 6)b-d-glucan has been isolated from its fruiting body that showed immune-modulation activity. from organic extracts, linoleic acid has been isolated and determined to be the main substance with antimutagenic activity. using both the micronucleus (mn) and comet (single cell microgel electrophoresis) assays, this study determined the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of a. blazei (ab) obtained from commercial sources or the following strains: a) strains ab 97/29 (young and sporulated phases); b) a mixture taken from ab 96/07, ab 96/09 and ab 97/11 strains; and c) commercial mushrooms from londrina, pr and piedade, sp, designated as ab pr and ab sp, respectively. the extracts from these mushrooms were isolated in chloroform:methanol (3:1) and used in vitro at three different concentrations. v79 cells (chinese hamster lung cells) were exposed to the extracts under pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment conditions, combined with methyl methanesulfonate (mms). under the circumstances of this study, these organic extracts did not show any genotoxic or mutagenic effects, but did protect cells against the induction of micronuclei by mms.
Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of organic extracts of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on V79 cells
Guterres Zaira da Rosa,Mantovani Mário Sérgio,Eira Augusto Ferreira da,Ribeiro Lúcia Regina
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Agaricus blazei Murrill, popularly known as the sun mushroom, is a native mushroom in SP, Brazil, that has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and many other pathologies in different parts of the world. A water-soluble protein-polysaccharide complex (1 -> 6)beta-D-glucan has been isolated from its fruiting body that showed immune-modulation activity. From organic extracts, linoleic acid has been isolated and determined to be the main substance with antimutagenic activity. Using both the micronucleus (MN) and comet (single cell microgel electrophoresis) assays, this study determined the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of A. blazei (AB) obtained from commercial sources or the following strains: a) strains AB 97/29 (young and sporulated phases); b) a mixture taken from AB 96/07, AB 96/09 and AB 97/11 strains; and c) commercial mushrooms from Londrina, PR and Piedade, SP, designated as AB PR and AB SP, respectively. The extracts from these mushrooms were isolated in chloroform:methanol (3:1) and used in vitro at three different concentrations. V79 cells (Chinese hamster lung cells) were exposed to the extracts under pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment conditions, combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Under the circumstances of this study, these organic extracts did not show any genotoxic or mutagenic effects, but did protect cells against the induction of micronuclei by MMS.
Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice
Carvalho, Natália Cassettari de;Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg;Leffa, Daniela Dimer;Moreira, Jeverson;Nicolau, Vanessa;Amaral, Patrícia de Aguiar;Rossatto, ?ngela Erna;Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011000200021
Abstract: melissa officinalis (l.) (lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east mediterranean region and west asia. also found in tropical countries, such as brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. the aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. cf-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (mo-ee) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (mo-ae) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an m. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or methyl methanesulfonate (mms) doses by intraperitoneal injection. irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. although mo-ee exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (mms) in all the doses, this was not so with mo-ae. micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of mo-ee, but only when administered at the highest dose. the implication that an ethanolic extract of m. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance.
Antigenotoxic effect of plant extracts  [PDF]
Kne?evi?-Vuk?evi? Jelena,Vukovi?-Ga?i? Branka,Simi? Draga
Genetika , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0702207k
Abstract: This report reviews our study of antigenotoxic compounds from medicinal and aromatic plants performed over several years. The studies of this type are aimed at understanding the protective mechanisms which may be relevant for the primary prevention of cancer and other mutation-related diseases. Antigenotoxic potential in this study is estimated with prokaryotic and eukaryotic tests measuring spontaneous and induced mutations, recombination, mutagenic repair, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. Our results indicate that monoterpenoids from sage act as modulators of DNA repair pathways, whereas sage antioxidants interfere with metabolic activation enzymes. The potential use of sage extracts in cancer prevention is discussed.
Evaluation of the Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Effects of Chios Mastic Water by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila  [PDF]
Dimitris Vlastos, Despoina Mademtzoglou, Elena Drosopoulou, Ioanna Efthimiou, Tatiana Chartomatsidou, Christina Pandelidou, Melina Astyrakaki, Eleftheria Chalatsi, Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069494
Abstract: Chios mastic gum, a plant-derived product obtained by the Mediterranean bush Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Its aqueous extract, called Chios mastic water (CMW), contains the authentic mastic scent and all the water soluble components of mastic. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMW, as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC), was evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the former assay, lymphocytes were treated with 1, 2 and 5% (v/v) of CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 0.05 and 0.50 μg/ml. No significant micronucleus induction was observed by CMW, while co-treatment with MMC led to a decrease of the MMC-induced micronuclei, which ranged between 22.8 and 44.7%. For SMART, larvae were treated with 50 and 100% (v/v) CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 1.00, 2.50 and 5.00 μg/ml. It was shown that CMW alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of spots indicating lack of genotoxic activity. Τhe simultaneous administration of MMC with 100% CMW led to considerable alterations of the frequencies of MMC-induced wing spots with the total mutant clones showing reduction between 53.5 and 74.4%. Our data clearly show a protective role of CMW against the MMC-induced genotoxicity and further research on the beneficial properties of this product is suggested.
Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract on cultured human lymphocytes using the chromosome aberration and Comet assays
Leite-Silva, Cleide;Gusm?o, Cássia Lima Silva;Takahashi, Catarina Satie;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000100019
Abstract: the brown seaweed fucus vesiculosus (fucales, fucaceae) was screened for its protective activity using doxorubicin-induced dna damage in human lymphocytes. in this study, we assessed the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of three different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg ml-1) of f. vesiculosus aqueous extract using the chromosome aberration and comet assays. treatment of human lymphocyte cultures with 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg ml-1 f. vesiculosus aqueous extract had no effect on the chromosome aberration frequency or on the extent of dna damage detected by the comet assay. the antigenotoxic effects of the extract were tested in human lymphocyte cultures treated with 15 μg ml-1 of doxorubicin, either alone or combined with the different concentrations of the extract, which was added to the cultures before, simultaneously with or after the doxorubicin. only when lymphocytes were pre-treated with extract there was a reduction in doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and dna damage as detected by the comet assay. these results demonstrate that f. vesiculosus aqueous extract is not genotoxic in cultured human lymphocytes and indicate that when added to lymphocyte cultures before doxorubicin it has antigenotoxic activity against doxorubicin-induced dna damage.
In Vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic studies of Thai Noni fruit juice by chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange assays in human lymphocytes
Treetip Ratanavalachai,Sumon Thitiorul,Pranee Nandhasri
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Noni fruit juice produced in Thailand have been studied in human lymphocytes for chromosome aberration assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in vitro. Treatment of Noni fruit juice(3.1-50 mg/ml) alone for 3 h did not significantly induce chromosomal aberration or SCE (p<0.05). Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml is the optimum dose for cell survival and cell replication as demonstrated by the highest value of mitotic index and proliferation index (P.I.). Interestingly, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at the same concentration of 6.2 mg/ml for 2 hfollowed by mitomycin C treatment at 3 μg/ml for 2 h significantly reduced SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05). However, these treatments did not show significant decrease in chromatid-type aberrations. Our data indicate that Thai Noni fruit juice is not genotoxic against human lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml demonstrated no anticlastogenic effect while had some antigenotoxic effects as demonstrated by significant decrease in the SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05). Therefore, the optimum dose of Noni fruit juice used as a traditional medicine is required and needs to be studied further for the benefit of human health.
Antigenotoxic activity and antioxidant properties of organic and aqueous extracts of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) pulp
Miranda-Vilela, Ana L.;Resck, Inês S.;Grisolia, Cesar K.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572008000500025
Abstract: the daily consumption of natural antioxidants protects against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ros), including dna damage, and can reduce the risk of cancer, atherosclerosis and other degenerative diseases. the pulp of pequi (caryocar brasiliense camb.) fruit, a tree native to the brazilian savannah, contains several compounds with antioxidant properties, including carotenoids, vitamin c, phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, saponins and tannins, and essential oils. in this work, we examined the ability of organic and aqueous extracts of pequi fruit pulp to protect against the genotoxicity induced by two antineoplastic drugs, cyclophosphamide (cp) and bleomycin (blm). micronucleus tests with mouse bone marrow cells and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) with peripheral blood leukocytes were used to examine the effects of cp and blm, respectively. the antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation with the tbars method in mouse plasma. the fruit pulp extracts had no clastogenic or genotoxic effects in the cells studied, but both extracts protected against oxidative dna damage caused by blm or cp, indicating an ability to inhibit chemical mutagenesis in vivo. however, the protective effect against oxidative dna damage depended on the dose of extract used. at the doses tested, the aqueous extract enhanced lipid peroxidation in mice of both sexes, especially in males. in contrast, the organic extract enhanced lipid peroxidation only in male mice, with no significant effect in females. these results suggest that, with adequate adjustment of the dose, an organic extract of pequi fruit pulp could be a useful dietary supplement with natural antioxidant activity, at least in females.
Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry  [PDF]
Chia-Wen Chang,Yan-Lii Leu,Jim-Tong Horng
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4040539
Abstract: Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae) are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW) was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71) by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics.
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