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ANTI-OBESITY AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA ON ATHEROGENIC DIET INDUCED OBESITY IN RATS  [PDF]
Kanthlal SK,Suresh V,Arunachalam G,Royal Frank P
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Tabernaemontana divaricata (Fam- Apocynaceae) is traditionally used for various treatments and also in the cases of arteriosclerosis and circulatory irregularities. Hence the present investigation was designed to evaluate the potential effect of methanol extract of aerial parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (METD) on obesity and hyperlipidiemia on Atherogenic diet induced obese rats. In this study, METD at the doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg were administered along with Atherogenic diet for a period of 42 days. Parameters such as body weight, body temperature, serum lipid profiles, SGOT and SGPT were evaluated. METD at the dose of 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) corrected the altered parameters, similar to that of standard drug sibutramine (2mg/kg). From the observations of the study performed, it could be predicted that Tabernaemontana divaricata exerted significant anti-obese and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed on Atherogenic diet. Further investigation needs to figure out the therapeutic potential and exact mechanism of T.divaricata in the treatment of obesity.
Antibacterial activity of Apocynaceae extracts and MIC of Tabernaemontana angulata stem organic extract
Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa;Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne;Sakuda, Telma Mary Kaneko;Ohara, Mitsuko Taba;Younes, Riad Naim;Varella, Antonio Drauzio;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322002000100009
Abstract: thirty-eight aqueous and organic extracts obtained from 11 amazonian apocynaceae species were submitted to an antimicrobial dilution in broth media screening for staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and candida albicans, performed on microtiter plates. the organic extract obtained from the stem of tabernaemontana angulata presented activity against gram positive staphylococcus aureus. the minimal inhibitory concentration of the organic crude extract was 2.50-1.25 mg/ml. cloramphenicol was used as standard. alkaloids and triterpenes were found in the active organic extract.
THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICALS OF THE LEAVES OF STYLOSANTHES FRUTICOSA  [cached]
Paul John Peter,Venkatesan M.,Yesu Raj J.
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i4.689
Abstract: The antibacterial activity and phytochemicals of the leaves of Stylosanthes fruticosa were evaluatedagainst three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus faecalis ,Staphylococcus aureusand five Gram-negative bacteria viz. Klebsiella pneumonia Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium ,and Proteus vulgaris. Both polar and nonpolar extracts viz. acetone, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were prepared and studied for antibacterialactivity using disc diffusion method. The majority of the significant antibacterial activity was observed in the ethanol extracts. The other solvent extracts showed satisfactory results. In general, gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bacteria . The resistance is due to the differences in their cell wall composition. In gram-negative bacteria the outer membrane acts as a great barrier to many environmental substances including antibiotics. Presence of thick murine layer in the cell wall prevents the entry of the inhibitors . But our results revealed a controversy report that gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to the crude extracts than gram-negative bacteria.. Theresults which are obtained with acetone, ethanol and chloroform extract ofleaf exhibited significant antibacterial activity, a property that supports traditional use of the plant inthe treatment of some diseases as broad spectrum antibacterial agents.
Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. leaves  [cached]
Umamaheswari A,Nuni A,Shreevidya R
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Family: Nyctaginaceae) leaves. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of B. diffusa L. leaves were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It was observed that ethanol, methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous extracts showed activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of B. diffusa L. leaves showed more activity against Gram-positive (e.g. S. aureus, zone of diameter 11 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli, zone of diameter 9 mm) when compared to other solvent extracts except V. cholerae. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial activity of B. diffusa L. leaves extract against various human pathogenic bacteria.
Antibacterial activity and mutagenicity of leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn  [cached]
Magesh Vijayan,Kunjumman Jacob,Yuvaraj Govindaraj
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/jeim.060612.or.032
Abstract: Objective: Indigofera tinctoria Linn was traditionally been used in the ancient herbal medicine in India/China for epilepsy, nervous disorders, bronchitis, and liver ailments; and also used as an anticardiovascular, but there was no literature evidence substantiating its antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial and mutagenic properties of an extract prepared from the leaves of I.tinctoria, commonly known as indigo plant. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract are determined with respect to bacterial species by agar dilution as per Clincial and Laboratory Standard Institute and mutagenicity of the extract is determined by Ames test. Results: The respective MICs of the methanol extract of I.tinctoria were methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 0.125 μg/ml, methicillin resistant S.aureus 0.25 μg/ml, coagulase negative S.aureus 0.25-0.5 μg/ml, vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecalis 0.5 μg/ml, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species 0.125-0.5 μg/ml, Moraxella 2 μg/ml, Streptococcus species 0.125-0.25 μg/ml, Haemophilus influenzae 2-4 μg/ml and against anaerobes is 1-2 μg/ml. Time kill assay were analyzed for methanol extract of I.tinctoria and it showed bacteriostatic and nonmutagenic activity up to 5 mg per plate in Ames test both in the presence and absence of S9 fraction. Conclusion: Methanol extract of I.tinctoria exhibited antibacterial activity, which was more active than that of standard linezolid, against a variety of clinically important bacteria isolated from near by selected hospitals in India and was found to be nonmutagenic up to 5 mg/plate in Ames test. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000): 263-269]
Antibacterial Activity of Cordyline terminalis Kunth. Leaves  [PDF]
Firoj Ahmed,Prabir K. Das,M. Amirul Islam,K. M. Rahman
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The methanolic extract of Cordyline terminalis Kunth. as well as its different solvent fractions were tested for their antibacterial activity. The methanolic extract showed a moderate antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermis. The n-hexane soluble fraction showed a mild antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii and Shigella dysenteriae whereas the acetone and chloroform fraction did not show any activity.
Screening of the leaves of three Nigerian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity
PO Adomi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The leaves of three plants, Alstonia boonei, Morinda lucida and Petiveria alliacea, and latex of A. boonei were screened for antibacterial activity. In evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and ethanol extracts of the plants were used. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the plants. Among the bacterial screened, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant bacterial strain, while Flavobacterium sp., the most susceptible one. M. lucida extract was active against all the tested bacteria. Therefore, this plant can be selected for further investigation to determine its therapeutic potential. The latex of A. boonei was not active against any of the bacteria tested.
Antibacterial activity of the active Component of Cassia alata (Linn) Leaves
ZU Faruq, UA Rahman, M Bello, M Obianke, FA Atiku
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Fresh leaves of Cassia alata Linn were extracted using different solvents first with water, then methanol then n-hexane and lastly with acetone. On comparison between methanol extract and extracts of other solvents it was revealed that methanol gave the maximum extraction, this was evident during the chromatographic separation as it gave large number of fractions. Chromatographic method was used to separate the different components of the extract. The crude extract as well as the chromatographic fractions were tested for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. Among the fractions, only one component show antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. The active chromatographic fraction revealed the presence of steroids. KEYWORDS: Antibacterial, ,Cassia alata, Staphylococcus aureus
SCREENING OF SECONDARY METABOLITES AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA CONCINNA LEAVES
Xavier Vergeese raja,Rajeshwari Sivaraj
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The preliminary phytochemical study and in vitro antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of Acacia concinna having ethno medicinal uses were investigated. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of phenol, tannin, fat and fixed oil, flavanoids, saponin and quinone. The extracts were subjected for screening of in vitro antibacterial activity against various pathogens at the concentrations of 500 and 250 μg/ml by well diffusion assay method. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens and the chloroform extract showed comparative by better activity than the other extracts against S.pyogens and s. aureus. The activities of the extract were compared with standard antibiotics. These results indicate that A. concinna leaves possesses potential broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Leaves and Fruits Extracts
Z.A. Zakaria,H. Zaiton,E.F.P. Henie,A.M. Mat Jais,E.N.H. Engku Zainuddin
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and chloroform extracts of the leaves and fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi L. using the standard disc diffusion test. The air-dried leaves and fruits of A. bilimbi were separately soaked in distilled water or chloroform (1:10; wv-1) for 24 h and the resultant supernatants were filtered. The aqueous extract was freeze-dried while the chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness under reduce pressure to obtained the crude dried extracts, which were prepared in the concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg mL 1 prior to the antibacterial assay. The results obtained demonstrated the potential of A. bilimbi extracts against some of the Gram-positive and-negative bacteria. The 100 mg mL 1 aqueous extract of A. bilimbi s leaves and fruits showed positive antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermis B. cereus, C. diphteriae with the latter also gave positive effect against K. rhizophila. Both extracts also exhibited positive antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative S. typhi, C. fuendii and A. hydrophila. On the other hand, the 100 mg mL 1 chloroform extracts of A. bilimbi s leaves and fruits demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermis, B. cereus, K. rhizophila and C. diphteriae and Gram-negative S. typhi, C. fuendii, A. hydrophila and P. vulgaris. In conclusion, the A. bilimbi leaves and fruits possess potential antibacterial activity that requires thorough study.
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