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Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice : Management Agricol , 2009,
Abstract: After the recent global economic downturn, governments seem to have been reluctant to push through difficult and unpopular economic reforms or to focus on increasing their national budgets for research and innovation. It is clear that business will be much released and encouraged by entering the Euro-Zone, and the agriculture would encounter a reviriment.The state control upon the macro-economy should be a short-run, efficient action.
Transforming Innovation for Sustainability  [cached]
Melissa Leach,Johan Rockstr?m,Paul Raskin,Ian Scoones
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-04933-170211
Abstract: The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.
Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices  [cached]
Mark Lubell,Vicken Hillis,Matthew Hoffman
Ecology and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/es-04389-160423
Abstract: A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.
Ability of Extension System to Accomplish Supportive Policies of Sustainable Agriculture in Iran
Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari,Mohammad Chizari
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the ability of extension system to accomplish supportive policies of sustainable agriculture as perceived by extension experts. A sample of 87 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique and surveyed through a pre-designed questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential were used to analyze the date for drawing conclusion. The findings show that extension experts generally had a positive perception regarding the ability of extension system for the achievement of supportive policies of sustainable agriculture in Iran context. No significant differences between overall means of professionals` perceptions toward ability of extension system to achieve supportive policies of sustainable agriculture and their age, organizational position, years of experience or educational background were found. It is concluded that extension system had a more effective role to accomplish policies regarding the supporting local groups for community action.
Policies and Transition Problems of Agriculture in Turkey  [PDF]
Hasan Yilmaz
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Agriculture plays an important role in Turkey, both in social and economic terms. Subsistence and semi-subsistence farming is an important characteristic of the Turkish agriculture. These farms are typically characterized by low productivity and only a small fraction of production has been marketed. While the rate of agriculture in national income was 14.7% in 2000, this rate is declined to 10.7% in 2005. Turkey is endowed with rich natural and human resources, but it is still far from reaching full potential of agricultural growth because of the inefficient agricultural policies. The prevailing conditions in agriculture combined with the mismanagement in macro and agricultural policies prevented an overall structural transformation of the sector. The long-term objectives of agricultural policies obviously need to be the improvement of productivity in the sector. In this study, the recent changes and developments in agriculture sector in general economy, agricultural structure, land use, production and policies in Turkey are analyzed. In addition, problems and proposed solutions related to agricultural in Turkey are also presented.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: Risk is quintessential in agricultural activities and the introduction of innovation in a farm always implies additional risks difficult to quantify and identify in advance. Surely farm’s internal and external sources of risk or kind of activities determine a complex entrepreneurial scenario but also psychological attitudes, feelings and behaviours of the individuals involved, a co-shared mentality and contextual culture may play a critical role as well. The case of the passage from conventional to organic agriculture exemplifies how a better understanding of “risk” and the related facets, perspectives and questions may provide relevant contributions to overcome the commonly shared idea of innate conservatism/impulsiveness in certain firms, economic sectors or class of entrepreneurs, to explain many cases of irrational resistance to innovation and to fill that frequent gap between technologists and farmers in the evaluation of the possibilities to adopt and implement also those innovations and new technologies necessary to achieve a more sustainable agriculture.
Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice : Management Agricol , 2009,
Abstract: The work approaches theoretical problems regarding the role of subsidies in agriculture, the situation of the subsidies in Romania, as well as the accounting policies regarding these subsidies. From the accounting point of view, we followed how the politics are being applied by the companies with agricultural orientation, for the two categories: subsidies related to the assets and subsidies related to incomes.
Greenhouse gases mitigation policies in the agriculture of Aragon, Spain  [cached]
Mohamed Taher Kahil,José Albiac
Bio-based and Applied Economics , 2013,
Abstract: Climate change is an important threat to human society. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG), but it also provides alternatives to confront climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture around the world during recent decades has generated significant environmental damages from pollution emissions. The spatial distribution of emissions is important for the design of local abatement measures. This study makes an assessment of GHG emissions in an intensive agricultural area of Aragon (Spain), and then an economic optimization model is developed to analyze several GHG mitigation measures. The results indicate that adequate management of manure, emissions limits, and animal production restrictions are appropriate measures to abate pollution. Economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address nonpoint pollution problems. Suitable pollution abatement policies should be based on institutional instruments adapted to local conditions, and involve the cooperation of stakeholders.
Intellectual property and innovation in agriculture and health - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i2.194en
Antonio Marcio Buainain,Roberto Castelo Branco Coelho de Souza,Adriana Carvalho Pinto Vieira
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2009,
Abstract: Intellectual property has come to assume an ever more important role in modern societies, whose development is associated with technological progress and the creative and entrepreneurial capacity of individuals and businesses. The present and future vector of development is innovation in all its dimensions – including the reinvention of the life styles of wealthy societies whose expansion is clearly unsustainable. In this sense, the present work’s purpose is to demonstrate that Brazil has created an institutional brand suitable for the intellectual property protection, however, that brand is only one condition, in some necessary sectors, but not enough, to promote innovation. It needs, more than appropriate rules, to develop the capacity to innovate and create an innovation friendly environment. Intellectual property is only one, without doubt important, element of this complex system. It has taken agriculture to illustrate how intellectual property needs to be followed up by investments in human resources, local training,business demand, private-public interaction, in order to yield fruit and promote the country’s development.
Noninterference with Local Policies  [PDF]
Sebastian Eggert,Henning Schnoor,Thomas Wilke
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We develop a theory for state-based noninterference in a setting where different security policies---we call them local policies---apply in different parts of a given system. Our theory comprises appropriate security definitions, characterizations of these definitions, for instance in terms of unwindings, algorithms for analyzing the security of systems with local policies, and corresponding complexity results.
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