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Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs  [cached]
Abolfazl MAHYAR
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2011,
Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group) were compared with 30 healthy children (control group). This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran) from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 ± 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 ± 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 ± 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 ± 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the case and control groups were 2.73±0.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 ± 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels.
Thyroid Function in Epileptic Children who Receive Carbamazepine, Primidone, Phenobarbital and Valproic Acid  [cached]
Susan Amirsalari,Zarrin Taj Kayhani Dost,Zohreh Kavehmanesh,Mohammad Torkaman
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2011,
Abstract: ObjectiveIn this study, we investigated the changes of the serum levels of thyroidhormones including Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), T3 resin uptake andThyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in epileptic children during treatment withanti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) including carbamazepine (CBZ), primidone (PRM),phenobarbital and valproic acid (VPA).Materials and MethodsThis study consisted of four case-series comparisons, was conducted on 115epileptic children (37 girls and 78 boys with an age range between 2 monthsand 15 years, mean: 62.06 ± 44.97 months). These children were divided into4 groups who took either phenobarbital (n=29), PRM (n=28), CBZ (n=29), orVPA (n=29) for 3 months. Thyroid hormone levels (T3, T3 resin uptake, T4 andTSH) were measured at the beginning and three months after starting the study.ResultsAt first, all patients were euthyroid and there were no clinical or laboratoryfindings suggestive of hypothyroidism. Regarding thyroid hormones before andafter the administration of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid andprimidone, there were no significant changes in serum T3, T4, T3 resin uptakeand TSH levels.ConclusionOur findings showed that short term therapy with phenobarbital, carbamazepine,valproic acid and primidone had no effect on thyroid function etsts.
Staggered spondaic word test in epileptic patients
Ortiz, Karin Zazo;Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo;Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho;Vilanova, Luiz Celso Pereira;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802002000600006
Abstract: context: auditory processing during childhood may be altered if there is any predisposing factor during the course of development. neurological disorders are among the risk factors for auditory processing impairment. from this perspective, epileptic children present such a risk factor and could present auditory processing dysfunction. objective: to evaluate central auditory processing in epileptic patients using the staggered spondaic word test (ssw) in order to verify whether these patients presented auditory disorders and whether the type of crisis partial or generalized played a role in the occurrence and type of disorder. setting: tertiary care hospital. sample: thirty-eight children and adolescents, ranging from 7 to 16 years old, with a diagnosis of epilepsy divided into two groups: 23 patients with partial crisis and 15 patients with generalized crisis. main measurements: performance in the staggered spondaic word test versus epileptic crisis type (partial or generalized). results: the majority of epileptic patients showed central auditory processing disorders. there were no differences in relation to crisis type. both groups showed similar performance, although the results observed for these patients differ from what is obtained with normal populations. with regard to response bias, there were also no differences in performance between subjects with partial or generalized seizures. all possible disorders were found in both groups, without the prevalence of one specific disorder over the other. conclusions: this study revealed a high prevalence of disorders among epileptic patients in relation to processing partially overlapped verbal sounds in a dichotic paradigm.
Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis
Pereira Jr., Jose Carlos;Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia;Pessoa, Hugo de Lins;
Clinics , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322010000500013
Abstract: data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate restless legs syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of restless legs syndrome symptoms. low iron levels can cause secondary restless legs syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. iron therapy improves restless legs syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. medical hypothesis. to discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning restless legs syndrome. the main cause of restless legs syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.
A conditional randomization test to account for covariate imbalance in randomized experiments  [PDF]
Jonathan Hennessy,Tirthankar Dasgupta,Luke Miratrix,Cassandra Pattanayak,Pradipta Sarkar
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the conditional randomization test as a way to account for covariate imbalance in randomized experiments. The test accounts for covariate imbalance by comparing the observed test statistic to the null distribution of the test statistic conditional on the observed covariate imbalance. We prove that the conditional randomization test has the correct significance level and introduce original notation to describe covariate balance more formally. Through simulation, we verify that conditional randomization tests behave like more traditional forms of covariate adjustmet but have the added benefit of having the correct conditional significance level. Finally, we apply the approach to a randomized product marketing experiment where covariate information was collected after randomization.
Validation and implementation of array comparative genomic hybridisation as a first line test in place of postnatal karyotyping for genome imbalance
Joo Wook Ahn, Kathy Mann, Sally Walsh, Marwa Shehab, Sarah Hoang, Zoe Docherty, Shehla Mohammed, Caroline Mackie Ogilvie
Molecular Cytogenetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8166-3-9
Abstract: Following a validation period, an oligoarray platform was chosen. In order to minimise costs and increase efficiency, a patient/patient hybridisation strategy was used, and analysis criteria were set to optimise detection of pathogenic imbalance. A customised database application with direct links to a number of online resources was developed to allow efficient management and tracking of patient samples and facilitate interpretation of results. Following introduction into our routine diagnostic service for patients with suspected genome imbalance, array CGH as a follow-on test for patients with normal karyotypes (n = 1245) and as a first-line test (n = 1169) gave imbalance detection rates of 26% and 22% respectively (excluding common, benign variants). At least 89% of the abnormalities detected by first line testing would not have been detected by standard karyotype analysis. The average reporting time for first-line tests was 25 days from receipt of sample.Array CGH can be used in a diagnostic service setting in place of G-banded chromosome analysis, providing a more comprehensive and objective test for patients with suspected genome imbalance. The increase in consumable costs can be minimised by employing appropriate hybridisation strategies; the use of robotics and a customised database application to process multiple samples reduces staffing costs and streamlines analysis, interpretation and reporting of results. Array CGH provides a substantially higher diagnostic yield than G-banded chromosome analysis, thereby alleviating the burden of further clinical investigations.Karyotype analysis of G-banded chromosomes is the cytogenetic standard for the detection of copy number imbalance across the genome, or balanced chromosome rearrangements, in children with such features as idiopathic developmental delay, learning difficulties, congenital abnormalities or autism. However, this technique has a resolution of only 3-5 Mb, and interpretation is operator-dependent, req
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2010,
Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine the changes in thyroid function tests in children who underwent antiepileptic therapy in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, in 2008.Materials & MethodsThis analytical-observational study was carried out in a cohort fashion without an external control group (self controlled) on 45 children with new onset epilepsy who had not been previously treated with antiepileptic medications. Three subjects were excluded from the study because of presenting clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Plasma levels of TSH, T3, FT3, T4 and FT4 hormones were measured and compared at baseline and 3 and 6 months after treatment.ResultsThe results of Mann-Whitney statistical analysis suggested that the increase in the plasma level of TSH was significant only in the Sodium Valproate group.The plasma level of T3 significantly decreased 3 and 6 months after treatment in the Phenobarbital group while the plasma level of FT3 significantly decreased only in the Sodium Valproate group. The decrease in T4 plasma level was significant in all groups (Carbamazepine group, Sodium Valproate group and Phenobarbital group) 3 and 6 months after the onset of treatment but the decreasing in FT4 plasma level was only significant in the Carbamazepine group 6 months after the commencement of treatment.ConclusionPhenobarbital had the least effect on thyroid hormones. Considering the effect of such medications on thyroid function tests, it seems necessary to check the plasma levels of hormones periodically after beginning the treatment.
Age- and Gender-Specific Changes in Thyroid Size and Thyroid Function Test Values of Euthyroid Subjects  [PDF]
Tika Ram Lamichhane, Sandeep Prashad Pant, Binod Lamichhane, Chhabindra Gautam, Sharma Paudel, Binod Kumar Yadav, Hari Prasad Lamichhane
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.611007
Background: The thyroid status is evaluated by two clinical diagnostic tests which are thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function tests. The objective of this research is to critically analyze the age and gender based variations of thyroid volume and thyroid hormone levels in the hospital based euthyroid subjects. Methodology: A total of 221 euthyroid subjects aged 1 - 86 years were selected to observe the normal thyroid size by ultrasonography at Department of Radiology and the thyroid function test values (FT3, FT4 and TSH) of 2413 euthyroid subjects aged (<1)-93 years were observed at Department of Biochemistry, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal during January 2017 to February 2018. The observed data were analyzed graphically and statistically to check the cross-correlations among the variables. Results: The best fitted equations with significant correlation coefficients and p < 0.05 provide the empirical relations between any two of the observed variables: age, thyroid lobe volumes, FT3, FT4 and TSH. The mean ± SD (p < 0.0001) of thyroid volume, FT3, FT4 and TSH are 4.74 ± 2.30 mL, 5.46 ± 0.82 pmol/L, 14.09 ± 2.71 pmol/L and 2.30 ± 0.98 mIU/L, respectively. Conclusion: The thyroid size first increases and then decreases whereas the thyroxin level first decreases and then increases with aging. Left lobe volume is almost same for both genders and right lobe volume is higher in males. The thyroid size in menarche and menopause periods of females is larger than that of males. Such age- and gender-specific changes recommend the new refer-ence ranges for the normal thyroid functions.
Anticonvulsive Effect of Paeoniflorin on Experimental Febrile Seizures in Immature Rats: Possible Application for Febrile Seizures in Children  [PDF]
Hitomi Hino,Hisaaki Takahashi,Yuka Suzuki,Junya Tanaka,Eiichi Ishii,Mitsumasa Fukuda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042920
Abstract: Febrile seizures (FS) is the most common convulsive disorder in children, but there have been no clinical and experimental studies of the possible treatment of FS with herbal medicines, which are widely used in Asian countries. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a major bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, and PF-containing herbal medicines have been used for neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we analyzed the anticonvulsive effect of PF and Keishikashakuyaku-to (KS; a PF-containing herbal medicine) for hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats as a model of human FS. When immature (P5) male rats were administered PF or KS for 10 days, hyperthermia-induced seizures were significantly suppressed compared to control rats. In cultured hippocampal neurons, PF suppressed glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), glutamate receptor-mediated membrane depolarization, and glutamate-induced neuronal death. In addition, PF partially suppressed the elevation in [Ca2+]i induced by activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), but not that mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpro?pionicacid (AMPA) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, PF did not affect production or release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that PF or PF-containing herbal medicines exert anticonvulsive effects at least in part by preventing mGluR5-dependent [Ca2+]i elevations. Thus, it could be a possible candidate for the treatment of FS in children.
Migraine, epileptic seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: Observations in Indian patients in a clinic-based study  [cached]
Chakravarty A,Mukherjee A,Roy D
Neurology India , 2010,
Abstract: The present study focuses on the incidence of epileptic seizures in 1000 patients (200 children and 800 adults) with migraine. Very few patients with migraine had history of epileptic seizures. No patient had migraine-induced seizures and none had seizure-induced migraine like headaches. Occurrence of psychogenic non-epileptic attacks during migraine headaches had not been highlighted in the past. In the present study, about a quarter of patients with migraine, especially adolescent and adult females, had history of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures during attacks of acute migraine. This appears to be the first report on these features in Indian subjects with migraine.
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