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The Emergent Salt Diapirs in the East Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Ghazaleh Razaghian, Mehran Arian
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.510063
Abstract: The emergent salt diapirs of the east Zagros, Iran have been investigated by their structural positions. The study area is including of Zagros orogeny belt and Persian Gulf that both of them have been formed on northeastern part of Arabian plate. There are 84 emergent salt diapirs that originated from Hormuz formation with Infra-Cambrian to Cambrian age. Based on location, shape and orientation of the emergent salt domes in the east Zagros hinterland and Persian Gulf foreland basin, internal motivation forces in the salt deposits has been predominant compared to later tectonic forces. In the other words, most of the emergent salt diapirs are pre-orogenic diapirs and they had got prominent role as pines in determining the shape and location of next structures during to the Zagros orogeny. Finally, Neogene continental collision has a supplementary role to diapirism and salt reactivation. However there are an evidence to syn-orogenic emergent diapirs that they have got an important role in the progressive deformation.
Basement Faults and Salt Plug Emplacement in the Arabian Platform in Southern Iran  [PDF]
J. Rahnama Rad,R. Derakhshani,G. Farhoudi,H. Ghorbani
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The Arabian Platform containing the Zagros Mountain Ranges (ZMR) is located to the Northeast of the Arabian Shield. There are nearly 200 salt domes on the Arabian Platform. In the ZMR, structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region, emergent salt plugs of Infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and aerial photographs. Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the East and by the Kazerun Fault to the West. Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces. The recognition of features related to basement tectonic and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes in an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region. To our best knowledge, data of basement faults in the study area is scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine basement faults and their relation to salt dome distribution. Considering the fold axis bending, the trend of the salt plugs and also the distribution of epicenters of the last century, numerous new basement faults are introduced in this study.
The Unique Folding Style in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, the Kuh-e Qazi Anticline, South Iran  [PDF]
Zahra Maleki
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.57047
Abstract: The study area is located in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt of Iran and in the interior Fars sub-basin (175 km from Persian Gulf). The Zagros fold-thrust belt is home to one of the largest petroleum producing reservoirs in the world. Structures in this area have complications and the study anticline has unique structures in the Fars region. In the study area, the Kuh-e Qazi anticline due to special fold style and rotation toward Northeast is the unique structure between anticlines of the Zagros belt. This anticline is fault bend fold and plunge of the anticline in eastern part rotated toward Northeast along with the Nezamabad fault trend. In this area, the Kuh-e Qazi anticline has asymmetric structures and some faults such as the Nezamabad and the Sarvestan strike slip fault effect on this anticline. The geometry of anticlines in the Zagros fold-thrust belt is affected by the type of deformation and mechanical behavior of stratigraphic units specially detachment units. The purpose of this research is to determine of folding pattern of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline and define structural features affected on them in the study area. This paper presents a part of the results of a regional study of the Fars province in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, based on original fieldwork, satellite images, structural sections, geological maps and well data. Also, we use some software as Global Mapper and Tectonics FP for preparing some data.?Based on the research, which have been done, the boundary between ductile and frictional substrates causes rotation as a result of lateral, along-strike migration of the ductile substrate. The ductile or viscose layer in the study area is Hormuz Series. Due to lack or thinning of Hormuz salt over the Gavbandi basement high and in the eastern side of the Nezamabad basement fault, causes translation of strain and anticlockwise rotation in Southeast of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline toward Northwest unlike foreland basin due to the Nezamabad fault activity. This style between all of the anticlines in the study area is unique that rotates unlike foreland basin. In addition, influence on anticlockwise rotation, extensional stress has been created and then salt dome cropping out in Southeast of the Kuh-Qazi anticline. One of the best evidence for effect of extensional stress is triangular facets in this part of the study anticline. Based on folding analysis (geometry of axial plane and fold orientation), it is clearly confirmed that the translation of strain and anticlockwise rotation in Southeast of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline toward Northwest
The basement tectonics in north of the Okinawa trough

LIU Zhan,SUN Lu-ping,FAN Feng-xin,WU Shi-guo,ZHAO Wen-ju,

地球物理学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: The basement tectonics in the north of Okinawa Trough was deduced using the latest gravity and magnetic data.The results indicate that there are two igneous rock zones in Okinawa Trough.One is the famous Tokara volcanic belt which makes of a series of active or resting volcanoes like a string of beads.The other igneous rock zone distributes in the spreading axis of the center of trough,which mainly makes of isolated benthonic volcanoes.The basement tectonics in the north of Okinawa Trough is concaved-protruded- concaved in EW direction.The depth of the basement varies from 1 km to 8 km.Under the effect of the north fault F1 of Tokara fracture belt,the basement tectonics varies a lot.This indicates that the fault F1 is a transformed fault zone.Moho is a east inclined surface tending to NNE.,and the thickness of the crust reduces from 21 km to 18 km.
Folding Style of the Kuh-e Siah Anticline in the Sarvestan Area, Interior Fars, Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Zahra Maleki, Fatemeh Jahadgar
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.58050
Abstract: The Kuh-e Siah anticline is located in the Sarvestan area of the Fars province (186 km to Persian Gulf) and Interior Fars sub basin. This anticline is a fault bend fold and is located in the Sarvestan fault zone with Northwest-Southeast trend. The Sarvestan fault zone has caused main deformation by dextral strike slip activity in southern part of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The main aim of this paper is to determine of fold style elements and folding pattern of the Kuh-e Siah anticline. This paper presents part of the results of a regional study of the Fars province in the Zagros Simply folded belt, based on original fieldwork, satellite images, structural sections, geological maps and well data. In addition, we used some software as Global Mapper and Tectonics FP for prepared some data. Folds, which are close sideways, are neutral and these require special attention. It is remarkable that, in all sections of the Kuh-e Siah anticline, fold type is close and in the middle part of the anticline, fold type is different with other parts. In the middle part, fold type is upright-moderately gently plunging. On the other hand, in northwestern and southeastern parts fold type is similar together. These results maybe show that fold style follow that fold sigmoidal shape that created with two-fault segment of the Sarvestan fault zone in the study area. Therefore, it seems that the Kuh-e Siah anticline has suffered high deformation in the Sarvestan fault zone and this fault zone has created shear zone.
Salt Tectonics in the Southern Iran  [PDF]
Azar Khodabakhshnezhad, Mehran Arian
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.73029
Abstract: Based on geographic distribution and geological setting of salt plugs in southern Iran, three salt diapiric provinces have been distinguished. These provinces include the Hormuz, Shiraz-Kazerun and Nyriz-Jahrum sub-basins. There are more than hundred salt plugs which they have been formed and developed in the southern margin of Iran. The salt structures that originated from Hormuz formation in these areas have been restricted and separated from each other for the first time in this paper. Salt diapirism of these provinces has been triggered earlier by Halokinesis in the Zagros and Persian Gulf basins, but it has affected later by tectonic forces, because orientation, shape and position of salt plugs have been followed from convergence regime (especially in the Zagros hinterland). In the other hand, based on our results from salt plugs in Persian Gulf foreland basin and the Zagros hinterland, Halokinesis triggers has been affected more than Halotectonic forces.
The basement tectonics in south of the Okinawa trough

LIU Zhan,ZHAO Wen-ju,WU Shi-guo,FAN Feng-xin,SUN Lu-ping,

地球物理学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: Based on the latest gravity and magnetic data the basement tectonics in south of the Okinawa Trough was deduced. The results show that Moho likes a saddle structure in south of the Okinawa Trough which is higher in the south and the north but lower in the middle, and the thickness of lithoshere changes from 15.5 km to 21 km. Popularly the basement depth changes among 4 km-6 km, and the depth is larger in south than in the north. Because the effect of NW faults, most the Tertiary local structures trend NW, which indicates that the early NE tectonic belts have been changed by the action of the faults trending NW. There are two igneous rock zones trending NNE in south of Okinawa Trough. One spreads in the east of spreading axis of Okinawa Trough and the west of downgrade of Ryukyu Arc. And the other one spreads in the integrated part of Okinawa Trough and the folded belt of Ryukyu Arc. The igneous rock might be mainly brought about by the action of NE faults,and had little effection by NW faults.
Structural Style in the Khalfani Anticline, Coastal Fars, Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt  [PDF]
Arezo Baghbanan, Zahra Maleki, Mohsen Pourkemani
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.59058
Abstract: The Khalfani anticline is located in the Coastal Fars (Zagros, adjacent Persian Gulf). This anticline with Northwest-Southeast trend is a fault bend fold. In the study area, the Khalfani anticline has increased elevation from West to East with three distinct humps. The major faults in the study area are the Hendurabi and the Razak sinistral strike slip faults. Because analysis of fold and their folding styles in different parts system is important, the analysis of folding style elements is necessary for structural studies. The main aim of this research is structural style analysis based on fold style elements in the Khalfani anticline. This analysis is important for progress in hydrocarbons exploration in the Coastal Fars area. In this research, we used Tectonics FP and Global Mapper Software for preparing some data in our study. In addition, we used the common classification of folds for our research. Based on given results, the folding pattern of this anticline has indicated that the fold style is same in different parts of the Khalfani anticline. In the study area, based on classifications of fold in different methods, fold style is same together. Fold, with close sideways requires special attention as structural view; then the Khalfani Anticline with close style in all parts has special deformation and folding style. It seems that in the study area, folding style and variation of structural style have been created by effect of the Razak and the Hendurabi sinistral strike slip fault. Because these faults are basement or deep-seated faults, special folding style and special deformation can be formed in the study area. In addition, the Khalfani anticline in the study area has restricted within the Razak and the Hendurabi sinistral strike slip faults.
Morphotectonic Analysis of Burkh Anticline, North of Bastak (Zagros)  [PDF]
Mohammad Khalaj
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.56036
Abstract: Burkh Anticline having a length of 50 km and a width of 9 km is located 40 km to the north of Bastak City in Internal Fars zone along folded-thrust belt of Zagros. In order to assess the active tectonics in the area of study, morphotectonical indices such as valley index (V), ratio of valley floor to valley height (Vf), channel sinuosity index (S), mountain front faceting index (F%) and mountain front sinuosity(Smf) are studied. These investigations show that the activity is not equal in various sections along Burkh Anticline and the central part of this anticline is the most active one.
The decorative program of the domes and area under the domes in the church of the monastery Resava  [PDF]
Prolovi? Jadranka
Zograf , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/zog0832131p
Abstract: Because the dome is interpreted as a symbol of the heavens, it is reserved for heavenly subjects. The calotte of the dome is seen as a vault of heaven or 'heaven in the heavens' and, as such, as the 'house of Christ'. As the commentator in the 19th century reports, the image of Christ Pantokrator was once located at the zenith of the central dome of Resava. The preserved scenes and figures below the dome, specifically the heavenly liturgy and the prophets, confirm the original existence of this image. Together they build an iconology that was very widespread in late Byzantine art. The composition of the central dome of Resava resembles in its complete appearance, supported by some particularities, the central dome of Ravanica, which served as a model for the artists of Resava. One can find close parallels for the decoration of the side domes in Ravanica. The similar arrangement of heavenly powers in the tambours of the domes in Ravanica and Resava indicate that, like in Ravanica, Christ Emmanuel, the Age of Days, the Mother of God and the Archangel Michael could have been depicted in the zenith of the side domes of Resava. This type of decorative scheme in side domes is common in late Byzantine monumental painting. The remaining fragments with images of angels as deacons positioned in the ring around the zenith of the central dome show that the Heavenly Liturgy was depicted here, specifically the Large Entrance which, aside from the communion, was the only part of the liturgy visible to the faithful. In Resava, the Heavenly Liturgy is completed by the images of crowds of angels, which are portrayed in the tambours of the side domes. The liturgical hymns that accompany these images of angels confirm this order. The rendering of orders of angels in the tambours of the side domes in Resava comply with the traditional program in which these heavenly beings - who being closest to God, who were his first creations and the only to whom a look in the heavenly spheres is always possible - are depicted in His nearest proximity in the dome as a symbol of heaven. The different clothing of the anthropomorphic angels and the differently fashioned robes of the other heavenly beings show that the painter wanted to illustrate the heavenly court with God's heavenly hosts and their hierarchical order. According to Pseudo-Dionysios Areopagites, the hierarchy was composed of nine ranks. It was the top levels of the heavenly army and guard that protect the throne of the Pantokrator and that serve as mediators between heavenly power and humans. With these depictions of heavenl
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