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Assessment of Groundwater Quality in A Selected Area of Bangladesh  [PDF]
S.M. Shahidullah,M.A. Hakim,M.S. Alam,A.T.M. Shamsuddoha
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater quality at Phulpur thana of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Water samples from 14 deep tubewells were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Fe, P, B, NO3-N, SO4=, Cl-, CO3= and HCO3. In addition SAR, SSP and RSC were calculated following standard equations. The range of EC was 180-380 Scm-1 and SAR 0.22-0.80 and these two parameters indicated that three samples were in low salinity-low alkali` and 11 were in medium salinity-low alkali` hazard class. There was no chloride toxicity in the area. The presence of SO4=, NO3- and P were negligible. As regards boron and SSP, all waters were of good` to excellent` class. In respect of TDS all were fresh water`. On the basis of RSC values all samples were of suitable` class. As a whole, groundwater of the area can safely be used for long-term irrigation. But some of those may not be suitable for drinking and industrial uses in consideration of Fe concentration, TDS and pH values. Among the quality determining factors SSP and SAR were highly correlated where correlation coefficient was 0.97.
Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh  [PDF]
M. J. Ahmed,M. R. Haque,A. Ahsan,S. Siraj
Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: The study was carried out to assess surface and groundwater quality of the greater Chittagong (Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar districts) and Chittagong Hill Tracts (Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban districts) of Bangladesh. To study the various physicochemical and microbiological parameters, surface water samples from the Karnafuli, Halda, Sangu, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Naf, Kasalong, Chingri and Mayani Rivers, Kaptai Lake and groundwater samples from almost every Upazilas, smaller administrative unit of Bangladesh, were collected and analyzed. The statistical methods of sampling were used for collecting samples. Samples were preserved using suitable preservation methods. Water samples from the freshwater resources were collected from different points and tide conditions and at different seasons for continuous monitoring during the hydrological years 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed for the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), dissolved oxygen (DO), transparency, acidity, dissolved carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, ammonia-N, hydrogen sulfide, sulphate-S, o-phosphate-P, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total nitrite and nitrate-N, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium using the procedure outlined in the standard methods. Average values of maximum physicochemical and microbiological parameters studied for the Karnafuli River were found higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The maximum water quality parameters of Kaptai Lake and other Rivers of Chittagong region were existed within the permissible limits of WHO guideline. The data showed the water quality slightly differs in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon than monsoon season. The concentration of different constituents of most of the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of BSTI drinking water quality guideline except As, Fe, and Mn. Results of water quality assessment identified the problem areas in respect of arsenic. The results also provided data to understand and quantify the threat of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources of this region. The results also provided data for water quality of surface and groundwater resources of Chittagong region to match national and international standards for drinking, agricultural, industrial and livestock requirements.
Water Quality Assessment of a Groundwater Basin in Bangladesh for Irrigation Use  [PDF]
A.A. Sarkar,A.A. Hassan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Quality of water is a pre-requisite for the success of an irrigation project. With this view, an effort was made to assess the groundwater quality of a hydrological basin in Bangladesh. Common problems for poor quality irrigation water were cited and the water quality parameter indices determined were precisely evaluated and interpreted. From the analytical result it was observed that the compositions of the groundwater samples were within the permissible range of irrigation use, except an increased Cl- values, responsible for toxicity problem. Standard water quality parameter indices like pH, EC, SAR, SSP, RSBC, KR, PI, MAR and TH were also found within the acceptable range of crop production. RSC values were higher (3.26 to 4.16 meq L-1) than the permissible limit (>2.5 meq L-1) due to higher HCO3- content in the irrigation water that may induce some permeability problem. Arsenic was traced and at one location it was found (0.2 to 0.3 mg L-1) above the danger limit (>0.05 mg L-1). However, except these minor discrepancies the groundwater of the study locations was categorized as excellent to good quality and seemed to be suitable for crop production.
Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Md. Khalequzzaman,Fazlay S. Faruque,Amal K. Mitra
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005020002
Abstract: Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.
Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Resources of Greater Comilla Region of Bangladesh
Ahmed M. J.,Haque M.R.,Haque T. M. A.
International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: An extensive study was carried out to elucidate the distribution and occurrence of different parameters of water quality of the greater Comilla region- Comilla, Brahmanbaria and Chandpur districts’, freshwater resources of Bangladesh. To study the different physicochemical parameters, surface water samples from the Meghna, Gumti, Titas, Hoara and Dakatia Rivers and groundwater samples from almost every Upazilas were collected and analyzed. Water samples from the freshwater resources were collected from different points and at different seasons for continuous monitoring during the hydrological years 2008-2009. Collected samples were analyzed for the following parameters: pH, EC, TDS, TSS, TS, DO, transparency, acidity, dissolved carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, ammonia-N, sulphate-S, o-phosphate-P, BOD, COD, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total nitrite and nitrate-N, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium using the procedure outlined in the standard methods. Arsenic was analysed for groundwater and Coli form only for surface water samples. Results of water quality assessment identified the problem areas in respect of arsenic. The results also provided data to understand and quantify the threat of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources of this region. The results also provided data for water quality of surface and groundwater resources of Comilla region to match national and international standards for drinking, agricultural, industrial and livestock requirements.
Hydrochemistry for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Korea  [PDF]
Jong Yeon Hwang, Sunhwa Park, Hyun-Koo Kim, Moon-Su Kim, Hun-Je Jo, Ji-In Kim, Gyeong-Mi Lee, In-Kyu Shin, Tae-Seung Kim
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2017.61001
Abstract: Understanding of the aquifer hydraulic properties and hydrochemical characteristics of water is crucial for management plan and study skims in the target area, and flow motions and chemical species of groundwater are regarded as precious information on the geological history of the aquifers and the suitability of various usages. Cations and anions of groundwater are used to estimate the characteristics and origin of groundwater. In this study, we try to evaluate the quality of groundwater based on the comparison of the physiochemical characteristics and distribution of cations and anions in groundwater from rural areas. Therefore we focused on the evaluation of groundwater as some specific purposes such as agricultural and industrial use, general types of groundwater, lithological origin of chemical component in groundwater. In this point of view, major objectives of this study were grouped as following three categories: 1) quality assessment of groundwater as a special usage (agricultural, industrial); 2) determination of groundwater types; 3) tracing of ion sources of groundwater. The quality of agricultural water was evaluated using SAR, sodium (%), RSC, PI, SSP, MH, PS, and Kelly’s ratio, and was classified as SAR (Excellent (100%)), Sodium ((Excellent (34%), Good (55%), Permissible (9%), Doubtful (1.6%), Unsuitable (0.4%)), RSC (Good (95.7%), Medium (3.5%), Bad (0.8%)), PI((Excellent (40.6%), Good (59%), Unsuitable (0.4%)), SSP ((Excellent (26.3%), Good (59.8%), Fair (13.1%), Poor (0.8%)), MH ((Acceptable (94.4%), Non-Acceptable (5.6%)), Kelly’s Ratio ((Permissible (93%), Non-Permissible (7%)), PS ((Excellent to Good (98%), Good to Injurious (1.2%), and Injurious to Unsatisfactory (0.2%)). Evaluation based on the Wilcox diagram was classified as “excellent to good” or “good to permissible”, and the water quality evaluated using the U.S. salinity Laboratory’s Diagram was classified as C1S1 (Excellent/Excellent) and C2S1 (Good/Excellent). And, in the applications of two factors of Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Corrosive ratio (CR), we could get similar results for defining the suitabilities of groundwater for the industrial purpose. And the groundwater samples were also classified groundwater using the Piper diagram and estimated the origin of ions using the Gibbs and Chadah diagram, and the classifications based on the Piper diagram showed that the types of the groundwater are \"\" type?and \"\" type. And,
Multifactorial Fuzzy Approach for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality  [PDF]
Natarajan Venkat Kumar, Samson Mathew, Ganapathiram Swaminathan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.26069
Abstract: This paper describes the utility of fuzzy Simulink model to assess the groundwater quality levels in Tiruchirappalli city, S. India. Water quality management is an important issue in the modern times. The study aimed at examining the influence of multiple parameters of ground water on potable quality. The data collected for Tiruchirappalli city have been utilized to develop fuzzy Simulink approach. This is illustrated with seventy nine groundwater samples collected from Tiruchirappalli corporation, S. India. The characteristics of the groundwater groundwater for this plain were monitored during the years 2006 and 2008. The quality of groundwater at several established stations within the plain were assessed using Fuzzy simulation. The results of the calculated fuzzy logic Simulink model and the monitoring study have yielded good agreement. Groundwater quality for potability indicated high to moderate water pollution levels at Srirangam, Ariyamangalam, Golden Rock and K. Abisekapuram depending on factors such as depth to groundwater, constituents of groundwater and vulnerability of groundwater to pollution. Fuzzy logic simulation approach was a practical, simple and useful tool to assess groundwater quality. This approach was capable of showing the water quality assessment for drinking on fuzzy Simulink model
Fuzzy Information Processing for Assessment of Groundwater Quality
N. Venkat Kumar,Samson Mathew,G. Swaminathan
International Journal of Soft Computing , 2012,
Abstract: Water quality management is an important issue in the modern times. In this study, the application of fuzzy set theory for decision making in the assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purposes. This is illustrated with thirty groundwater samples collected from Ariyamangalam zone of Tiruchirappalli, S. India. These 30 samples were analyzed for 10 physiochemical parameters. This fuzzy groundwater quality model approach, the groundwater quality is classified in three categories, just four samples comes in the desirable class certainty level of minimum 8% and a maximum of 79%. About 14 samples were classified in the acceptable category for drinking purpose with the maximum certainty level of 50%. Rest of the 13 sample were in not acceptable class with a maximum certainty level of 100%. This approach is capable of showing the water quality assessment for drinking.
Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh
Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman,Syed Hafizur Rahman,Ratan Kumar Majumder
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt), sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62), soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21), electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm), magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97), Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62), total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l), permeability index (68.02-94.16) and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l). Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.
Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Central India  [PDF]
Shabya Choudhary, Shobhana Ramteke, Keshaw Prakash Rajhans, Pravin Kumar Sahu, Suryakant Chakradhari, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Laurent Matini
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.81002
Abstract: The groundwater is widely used for irrigation of rice crops. The overuse of groundwater causes depletion of the water quality (i.e. enormous increase in conductivity, hardness and ion and metal contents, etc.) in several regions of the country and world. In this work, the quality of the groundwater in the densestrice cropping area, Saraipali, Chhattisgarh, Central India is discussed. The water is sodic in nature with extremely high electrical conductivity. The mean concentration (n = 30) of F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Fe in the water was 1.2 ± 0.2, 98 ± 31, 46 ± 15, 56 ± 9, 19 ± 4, 206 ± 25, 9.2 ± 2.3, 39 ± 6, 114 ± 19 and 1.7 ± 0.6 mg/L, respectively. The sources of the contaminants are apportioned by using the factor analysis model. The suitability of the groundwater for the drinking and irrigation purposes is assessed.
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