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Efecto de diferentes ésteres de estradiol usados para sincronizar la ovulación sobre el porcentaje de pre?ez post IATF en vaquillonas Angus
Veiga,P; Montiel,J; Chayer,R.; Uslenghi,G; Callejas,S;
InVet , 2011,
Abstract: three experiments were conducted (ei, n: 209; eii, n: 208; y eiii, n: 188) using angus heifers in order to compare the use of estradiol cypionate (ec) at device removal or estradiol benzoate (eb) 24 h after in a ftai protocol. on day 0 heifers received a progesterone intravaginal device plus eb. on day 8, the intravaginal device was removed and heifers received a luteolytic dose of pgf. at device removal heifers were randomized to receive either ec at 0 h or eb at 24 h. on day 10, 50-53 h after device removal, fixed timed artificial insemination was performed using frozen/ thawed semen of proven fertility (3 bulls for ei and 2 for eii and eiii) and two inseminators. pregnancy rates were not different between treatments (ei: 67.8%; eii: 59.2%; eiii: 58.4%) or inseminators (p>0.05); however a bull effect was observed in experiments i (b: 47.8%; f: 75.0%; m: 72.0%; p<0.05) and ii (m: 68.8%; me: 48.5%; p0.05). interactions were not significant. in conclusion, according to our finding, estradiol cypionate could be used instead of estradiol benzoate to synchronize ovulation without affecting the pregnancy rate at fixed timed artificial insemination.
Efecto de la permanencia de un dispositivo intravaginal con progesterona sobre la eficiencia reproductiva de vaquillonas holando Effects of permanence time of intravaginal device with progesterone upon reproductive efficiency of Holstein Heifers  [cached]
S Callejas,P Ochionero,S. González Chaves,J Cabodevila
InVet , 2008,
Abstract: Se utilizaron 53 vaquillonas Holando Argentino (edad: 20 - 27 meses; condición corporal: 3,9±0,2) para evaluar si dispositivos intravaginales (DIV) con 0,558 g de progesterona (Cronipres M-24, Biogénesis Bagó) pueden permanecer en vagina durante 7 u 8 días sin afectar la eficiencia reproductiva. Se distribuyeron a dos tratamientos: 1) M24 7d: El d0 se colocó un DIV (0,558 g de progesterona) y se administró 2 mg de Benzoato de Estradiol (BE, Bioestrogen, Biogénesis Bagó), el d7 se retiró el DIV y se administró 150 μg de DCloprostenol (PGF, Enzaprost, Biogénesis Bagó), el d8 se inyectó 1 mg de BE y el d9 se realizó Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF). 2) M24 8d: Similar M24 7d, pero el DIV permaneció por 8 días. Diecisiete a 25 días post IATF se reinseminó toda vaquillona en celo. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por ultrasonografía (pre ez IATF) y palpación transrectal (pre ez del retorno). No se observó efecto del tratamiento sobre los porcentajes de pre ez a la IATF (63,0 vs. 73,1%), retorno (57,1 vs. 50,0%) y final (77,8 vs. 84,6%), ni sobre el porcentaje de retorno (70,0 vs. 85,7%; M24 7d vs. M24 8d; P>0,05). En conclusión, el DIV con 0,558 g de progesterona puede permanecer colocado por 7 u 8 días, en vaquillonas Holando Argentino, sin afectar la eficiencia reproductiva. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of progesterone (0.558 g) intravaginal devices for 7 or 8 days on reproductive efficiency. A total of 53 Holstein heifers (20-27 month-old; 3.9±0.2 body condition score) were used. Heifers were assigned to 2 treatment: 1) M24 7d: Day 0, insertion of intravaginal device (0,558 g progesterone) + 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB); day 7, device removal and administration of 150 μg of D-Cloprostenol; day 8, 1 mg EB; day 9, (Fixed Timed Artificial Insemination (FTAI); 2) M24 8d: Similar to M24 7d, but the permanence of the device was of 8 days. Seventeen to 25 days after FTAI, heifers returning to estrus were inseminated. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by ultrasonography 28 days after FTAI (FTAI pregnancy) and by transrectal palpation at 60 day after return to estrus (estrus return pregnancy). There was no effect of treatments on pregnancy rate at FTAI (63.0 vs. 73.1%), pregnancy rate to detected heat (57.1 vs. 50.0%), general pregnancy rate (77.8 vs. 84.6%), and heat detection rate (70.0 vs. 85.7%) (P>0.05). In conclusion, the device with 0.558 g of progesterone can remain in the vagina for 7 or 8 days without affecting reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers.
Taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore lactantes tratadas com progesterona associada à remo??o temporária de bezerros ou aplica??o de gonadotrofina cori?nica eqüina
Ereno, Ronaldo Luiz;Barreiros, Thales Ricardo Rigo;Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes;Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio;Pegorer, Marcelo Figueira;Barros, Ciro Moraes;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982007000600010
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the effects of temporary calf removal (tcr) or ecg administration on pregnancy rates of milking nelore cows treated with a intravaginal progesterone releasing device (iprd). in the first experiment 83 nelore and 102 nelore vs. red angus crossbred cows were randomly allocated to 3 groups. animals in group 1 (con) received estradiol benzoate (eb; 2.5 mg, i.m., estrogin?) and an iprd (1g progesterone, dib?) in a random stage of the estrous cycle (d0). at d9 the iprd was removed and the animals were treated with d-cloprostenol (150μg, i.m., prolise?). the animals were artificially inseminated (ai) 12 h after estrus detection. group 2 (ftai) was similar to con, except that another dose of eb (1mg) was administered at d10, and 30-36 hours later artificial insemination (ftai) was performed at a fixed time. in group 3 (ftai/tcr) the calves were removed from d9 to the ftai. pregnancy rates for nelore and crossbred cows were, respectively, 7.69 and 41% (con); 23.52 and 59.57 (ftai); 69.44 and 55.81 (ftai/tcr). in the second experiment, 255 lactating nelore cows were allocated to 3 groups. at d0, animals in group 4 (ftai) received eb (2 mg) and one iprd (1.9g progesterone, cidr-b?), which was removed at d8 when the cows received 25 mg of dinoprost (i.m., lutalyse?). at d9 eb (1 mg) was administered and 30-36 hours later all animas were ftai. in group 5 (ftai/tcr) the calves were removed from d9 to ftai. the group 6 (ecg) was similar to iatf except for the administration of ecc in d9 (400 iu, i.m., novormon?). pregnancy rates were: 50.57% (ftai), 53.57% (ftai/tcr) and 54.76% (ecg). these results indicated that tcr associated with iprd increase pregnancy rates, whereas the addition of ecg to iprd do not improve pregnancy rates in nelore cows which are cycling and in lactation with good body condition.
Effect of the anticipation of the of application of prostaglandin on the reproductive performance of beef cattle cows submitted to artificial insemination in fixed time Antecipa o da aplica o de prostaglandina, em programa de insemina o artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte
Carlos Santos Gottschall,Hélio Radke Bittencourt,Rodrigo Costa Mattos,Ricardo Macedo Gregory
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of the anticipation of the application of prostaglandin F2alfa (PGF2a) was evaluated for the use of fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). Three hundred and six Aberdeen Angus cows, aged between 3 and 6 years old, with calves at side had been used. The animals were randomly distributed in 4 groups. All animals were synchronized through intravaginal device with progesterone for 8 days (CIDR ), estradiol and PGF2a. The treatments was designed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (CIDR 1o x 2o use) and the day of the PGF2a application (6.5th x 8 th day). Seven days after the FTAI clean up bulls were joined until the ending of the breeding season. The conception rate to the FTAI and final pregnancy rate were evaluated. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a (6.5th day) had significant effect (P<0.05) on the conception rate at the FTAI and final pregnancy rate, respectively of 60.9% and 89.1% when compared with the animals that had received PGF2a in the 8 th day, respectively of 49.3% and 76.7%. The 1th or 2th use of the intravaginal device had presented differences (P<0.05) in the conception rate (61.1% and 49.7%), however without effect in the final pregnancy (P>0.05), respectively of 82.6 and 83.4%. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a increased the pregnancy rate significantly at the FTAI and the final pregnancy. The previous use of the CIDR affected the percentage of pregnancy at the FTAI, but it did not affect the final pregnancy. The cow’s age and the body condition score had not effect on the conception rate to the FTAI and the final pregnancy. Avaliou-se o efeito da antecipa o da aplica o da prostaglandina F2alfa (PGF2a) em programa de sincroniza o do estro com progesterona para o uso de insemina o artificial em tempo fixo (IATF). Foram utilizadas 306 vacas Aberdeen Angus, com cria ao pé e idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 4 grupos sincronizados através de dispositivo intravaginal à base de progesterona por 8 dias (CIDR ), benzoato de estradiol e PGF2a, com arranjo fatorial de tratamentos 2 x 2 (CIDR 1o x 2o uso), e o dia da aplica o da PGF2a após a inser o do dispositivo intravaginal (6,5o x 8o dia). Sete dias após a IATF, touros foram soltos no rebanho até o término da esta o de acasalamento. Foram avaliadas as taxas de concep o à IATF e prenhez final. A antecipa o da aplica o da PGF2a (dia 6,5) teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de concep o à IATF e prenhez final, respectivamente, de 60,9% e 89,1% em compara o aos animais que receberam PGF2a no 8o dia, respe
Efecto de la permanencia de un dispositivo intravaginal con progesterona sobre la eficiencia reproductiva de vaquillonas holando
Callejas,S; Ochionero,P; González Chaves,S.; Cabodevila,J; Cledou,G;
InVet , 2008,
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of progesterone (0.558 g) intravaginal devices for 7 or 8 days on reproductive efficiency. a total of 53 holstein heifers (20-27 month-old; 3.9±0.2 body condition score) were used. heifers were assigned to 2 treatment: 1) m24 7d: day 0, insertion of intravaginal device (0,558 g progesterone) + 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (eb); day 7, device removal and administration of 150 μg of d-cloprostenol; day 8, 1 mg eb; day 9, (fixed timed artificial insemination (ftai); 2) m24 8d: similar to m24 7d, but the permanence of the device was of 8 days. seventeen to 25 days after ftai, heifers returning to estrus were inseminated. pregnancy diagnosis was done by ultrasonography 28 days after ftai (ftai pregnancy) and by transrectal palpation at 60 day after return to estrus (estrus return pregnancy). there was no effect of treatments on pregnancy rate at ftai (63.0 vs. 73.1%), pregnancy rate to detected heat (57.1 vs. 50.0%), general pregnancy rate (77.8 vs. 84.6%), and heat detection rate (70.0 vs. 85.7%) (p>0.05). in conclusion, the device with 0.558 g of progesterone can remain in the vagina for 7 or 8 days without affecting reproductive efficiency of holstein heifers.
USE OF SODIUM CLOPROSTENOL AND OESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN BEEF CATTLE FEMALES INSEMINATED IN FIXED-TIME WITH OR WITHOUT ESTROUS RETECTION UTILIZA O DE CLOPROSTENOL SóDICO E BENZOATO DE ESTRADIOL EM VACAS DE CORTE INSEMINADAS EM TEMPO-FIXO OU COM OBSERVA O DE CIO  [cached]
Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer,Eduardo Madeira Castilho,Augusto Schneider,Elias Moura da Luz
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF2α) and oestradiol benzo-ate (ODB) in estrus synchronization programs. A hundred and eighty five non-lactating females divided in 4 groups were used. G1 (44) and G2 (46) received two applications of PGF2α (D0 and D11) and G3 (26) and G4 (37) received one application after 5 days of estrous detection. G1 and G3 also received a 1 mg ODB application 48 hours after the PGF2α. The pregnancy rate at AI was 42,2% for G1, 47,8% for G2, 32,1% for G3 e 57,6% for G4 (p>0,05) and of 38,4% and 51,4% for animals submitted to FTAI and estrous detection, respectively (p>0,05). This results show that pregnancy rates of females fixed time inseminated didn’t differ of that inseminated after estrus detection. Key-words: Beef cattle, estrus synchronization, fixed time artificial insemination, prostaglandin. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o emprego de um análogo da prostaglandina F2α (PGF2α) em associa o ao benzoato de estradiol (BE) em programas de sincroniza o de cios. Utilizaram-se 185 fêmeas n o-lactantes divididas em quatro grupos. O G1 (44) e o G2 (46) receberam duas aplica es de PGF2α (D0 e D11) e os animais do G3 (26) e G4 (37) uma aplica o de PGF2α, após cinco dias de detec o de cio. O G1 e o G3 receberam 1mg de BE 48 horas após a PGF2α. A taxa de prenhez na IA foi de 42,2% no G1, 47,8% no G2, 32,1% no G3 e 57,6% no G4 (p>0,05) e de 38,4% e 51,4% para animais submetidos à IATF e à detec o de cio, respectivamente (p>0,05). Notou-se que a taxa de prenhez nas fêmeas inseminadas em tempo-fixo n o diferiu daquelas que foram inseminadas após a detec o de cio. Palavras-chaves: Bovinos de corte, insemina o artificial em tempo fixo, prostaglandina, sincroniza o de cios.
ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZA O DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORáRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE  [cached]
Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto,Marcelo Maronna Dias,Fabrício de Azevedo Velho,Jo?o Batista Souza Borges
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI) submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW) and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three groups according to the AI or FTAI protocol. A group of cows was artificial inseminated according estrous detection after 10 days of definitive weaning during a period of 30 days (EW-AI, n= 53). Estrous synchronization programs to FTAI were carried out in two groups in different moments after EW. In the group EW-FTAI (n= 50), cows were treated at the moment calves were removed while in EW-FTAI 10 (n= 50) the hormonal treatment began 10 days later. The hormonal treatment consisted of an intravaginal implant containing 1,9g of Progesterone, for 8 days, and an injection of Estradiol benzoate (EB), 2mg, im. When the dispositives were removed, 75mcg of Cloprostenol were injected, im, and after 24 hours, 1mg of EB, im. Cows were fixed-time artificial inseminated 52 to 56 hours after implants removal. In TW-FTAI group (n= 52), cows were treated with the same hormonal therapy, but a temporary weaning of 60 hours was done after the implant removal and the FTAI moment. The breeding season was 60 days in EW-FTAI and TW-FTAI groups, 50 days in EW-FTAI10 group and 30 days in EW-AI group. In a sample of 20% of cows ovaries were scanned by ultrasound and it was determined that 55% of the cows were in anestrous. Follicular diameters were determined at beginning of hormonal treatment and at FTAI moment in cows submitted to estrous synchronization (EW-FTAI= 10, EW-FTAI10= 10 and TW-FTAI= 10) by ultrasound. The means of follicular diameters were not different (P>0.05) between groups at Day 0 (7.0±3.1mm; 8.1±1.9mm e 6.5±1.7mm) and at Day 10 (9.8±1.4mm; 12.5±1.2mm e 11.8±2.8mm). The pregnancy rates at AI were 57, 48, 48 and 46% and at the end of the breeding season were 77, 88, 68 and 78%, EW-AI, EW-FTAI, EW-FTAI10 and TW-FTAI respectively, without significance (P>0.05). According to the this study, EW didn’t improve reproductive performance compared to TW associated to estrous synchronization programs to FTAI and 10 days of interval from EW and hormonal therapy didn’t increase fertility in FTAI. Key words: Beef cows, early weaning, fixed-time artificial insemination. O objetivo deste e
Efeito de diferentes dispositivos intravaginais na sincroniza o estral e taxa de gesta o em ovelhas deslanadas submetidas à IATF via cervical superficial com sêmen refrigerado Effect of different intravaginal devices in estrus synchronization and pregnancy rate in woolless sheep submitted to FTAI via superficial cervical with fresh chilled semen  [cached]
Rodrigo T. Padilha,Ricardo L. Moreira,Deborah de M. de Magalh?es,Almir Maia-Junior
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias , 2011, DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v6i3a896
Abstract: O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes dispositivos intravaginais na sincroniza o estral e taxa de gesta o em ovelhas deslanadas submetidas à IATF via cervical superficial com sêmen refrigerado. Foram utilizadas 40 ovelhas SPRD, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo 1, ovelhas com o dispositivo CIDR ; Grupo 2, ovelhas tratadas com esponjas impregnadas com 60 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP). Os animais receberam o tratamento por 14 dias, sendo a IATF, via cervical superficial, realizada 55 h após a retirada dos dispositivos. A IATF foi realizada utilizando-se sêmen resfriado de carneiros com fertilidade comprovada. O intervalo médio do fim do tratamento ao início do estro foi de 29±0,59 h para o grupo tratado com CIDR e 34±2,7 h para o grupo com MAP, mostrando uma antecipa o significativa (P 0,05) no início do estro dos animais tratados com CIDR , quando comparados àqueles com MAP. A taxa de gesta o do grupo tratado com esponjas impregnadas com MAP apresentou taxa significativamente superior àquele tratado com CIDR (80% versus 25%) e a prolificidade foi de 1,8 e 1,6 para os grupos tratados com MAP e CIDR , respectivamente. Como o elevado número de animais em estro no grupo tratado com CIDR n o se refletiu em perfeita sincronia, resultando em baixa taxa de gesta o, recomenda-se, para a insemina o de ovelhas deslanadas, 55 h após a retirada do dispositivo intravaginal, a utiliza o de esponjas impregnadas com MAP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different intravaginal devices in estrus synchronization and pregnancy rate in woolless sheep submitted to FTAI via superficial cervical with fresh chilled semen. Forty crossbreed ewes were used and randomly distributed into two groups: Group 1, ewes treated with the device CIDR ; Group 2, ewes treated with sponges impregnated with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP). The devices remained in the animals for 14 days and the TFAI via superficial cervical was performed 55 h after the devices were removed. The TFAI was performed using fresh chilled semen from rams with proven fertility. The average interval between the end of treatment and the onset of estrus was 29±0.59 h (CIDR ) and 34±2.7 h (MAP), showing a significant anticipation (P 0.05) at the onset of the estrus in animals treated with CIDR , in comparison to MAP. The pregnancy rate and prolificity was 80% and 1.8 in the group of sheep treated with sponges with MAP and 25% and 1.6 for the CIDR . Once the high number of animals in estrus in the CIDR group did not result in perfect sy
Embryo transfer in angus and brahman recipient cows: Effect of two methods of estrus synchronization on induced estrus and pregnancy
Chase, Jr,Chad C; Vargas,Carlos A; Hammond,Andrew C; Olson,Timothy A; Griffin,James L; Murphy,Clifton N; Tewolde,Assefaw; Fields,Michael J;
Revista Científica , 2009,
Abstract: over a 3-year period, 88 angus and 87 brahman cows were used as recipients to determine the effects of breedtype and method of estrous synchronization on induced estrus and subsequent pregnancy following embryo transfer. estrus was synchronized in recipients using either prostaglandin-f2α (pgf; lutalyse) or progestogen (pro; syncro-mate-b). recipients were treated (im) with pgf on day -11 (25 mg), 0 (12.5 mg), and 1 (12.5 mg). recipients were treated with pro on day -9 (6 mg norgestomet ear implant and 2 ml [im] of 3 mg of norgestomet and 5 mg of estradiol valerate) and the ear implant was removed on day 0. embryos were randomly transferred to recipients synchronous +24 to -24 h with a 7-d embryo. both synchronization methods (pgf vs. pro) were similarly effective in inducing estrus (89.8 vs. 86.7%). percentage of induced estrus was similar between brahman (91.0%) and angus (85.6%). recipients treated with pgf had a longer (p = 0.001) interval to estrus than pro treated recipients (77.4 vs. 60.1 h). estrus response in angus was earlier (p = 0.043) than in brahman (65.4 vs. 72.2 h). neither breed (p = 0.97; angus 49% 35/72 and brahman 54% 38/70) nor estrus synchronization treatment (p = 0.23; pro 49% 35/72 and pgf 54% 38/70) affected pregnancy rate. pregnancy rates in recipients closely synchronized (0 h) was 60.0%, within +12 and -12 h was 56.0%, and within +24 and -24 h was 51.5%. four-year-old recipients had lower pregnancy rates (34.8%) than did 5-year-old (60.9%) or greater than 6-year-old (70.0%) recipients. these results indicate that pgf, when administered as a split-second dose, is as effective in synchronizing estrus in angus and brahman as pro. asynchrony of embryo age with recipient stage of cycle up to +24 or -24 h did not significantly affect pregnancy rates.
Intramammary infections during the periparturient period in Argentine dairy heifers Infecciones intramamarias durante el periparto en vaquillonas en Argentina  [cached]
L. F. Calvinho,V. R. Canavesio,I. A. Iguzquiza,I. Marioni
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2007,
Abstract: Prevalence of intramammary infections at prepartum and postpartum in primigravid heifers from five dairy herds located in the central dairy area of Argentina was determined. Mammary secretion samples from 140 heifers (560 mammary quarters) were obtained 14 days prior to the expected calving day and within 7 days after parturition and subjected to bacteriological analysis. No clinical mastitis cases were detected during the study. The number of infected heifers in at least one mammary quarter at pre and postpartum was 87 (62.2%) and 53 (37.8%), respectively. The most prevalent mastitis pathogens at prepartum among samples yielding a positive bacteriological culture were coagulasenegative staphylococci (69.07%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.71%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.42%). A decrease on isolation frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci (53.41%) and S. uberis (2.27%) was observed at postpartum, while that of S. aureus showed an increase (21.59%). Presence of intramammary infections appeared to be associated with some management conditions. These results highlighted the need to improve diagnosis and control measures in replacement heifers. Se determinó la prevalencia al preparto y posparto de infecciones intramamarias causadas por organismos patógenos de mastitis en vaquillonas primíparas de cinco establecimientos lecheros ubicados en la cuenca central santafesina. Se tomaron muestras de secreción mamaria de 140 vaquillonas (560 cuartos mamarios) aproximadamente 14 días antes de la fecha probable de parto y dentro de los 7 días posparto, y se procesaron bacteriológicamente. No se detectaron casos de mastitis clínicas durante el estudio. El número de vaquillonas infectadas en al menos un cuarto mamario al preparto y posparto fue de 87 (62,2%) y 53 (37,8%), respectivamente. Los organismos patógenos más prevalentes al preparto entre las muestras con cultivo bacteriológico positivo fueron estafilococos coagulasa negativos (69,07%), Staphylococcus aureus (12,7%) y Streptococcus uberis (4,42%). Al posparto se observó un descenso en la frecuencia de aislamiento de estafilococos coagulasa negativos (53,41%) y S. uberis (2,27%), mientras que la de S. aureus mostró un aumento (21,59%). La presencia de infecciones intramamarias pareció estar asociada con algunas prácticas de manejo. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de hacer extensivo el diagnóstico y control de la enfermedad a las vaquillonas de reemplazo antes de su ingreso al rodeo en orde o.
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