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Social closure and discriminatory practices related to the Roma minority in the Czech Republic through the perspective of national and European institutions  [PDF]
Lucie Cviklová
Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology , 2011,
Abstract: While differentiating among notions of social exclusion, social closure and bridging social capital, the article analyses the evolution of cultural and social borders between the Czech majority on the one hand and the Roma minority on the other. Special attention has been paid to current legal practices concerning discrimination which have shifted the burden of proof in favor of ethnic minorities and have introduced cleavages between the processes of direct and indirect discrimination. It is explained that the unequal access to elementary education has been crucial in generating social exclusion of the minority. In relation to this, the landmark decision of the European Court of Human Rights is discussed, as it particularly highlights the importance of educational segregation of Roma people in Czech schools for children with learning disabilities.
EU Influence on the Citizenship Policies of the Candidate Countries: The Case of the Roma Exclusion in the Czech Republic
Dimitry Kochenov
Journal of Contemporary European Research , 2007,
Abstract: Although the persons of Roma ethnicity who were deprived of the Czech citizenship upon the split of the Czech and Slovak Federation by controversial law No. 40/1993 were not in the end left stateless, the Commission can be reproached for not using the influential position it enjoyed in the course of the pre-accession process preceding the fifth enlargement of the European Union (1 May 2004) in order to insist that the Czech Republic alter its ethnically-biased citizenship policy. Although some steps in this direction were taken by the Commission, they fell short of addressing the whole range of discriminatory provisions of this Czech legislation preventing the former Czecho-Slovak citizens of Roma ethnicity from becoming citizens of the Czech Republic. In Addition to the overall ineffectiveness of its pre-accession promotion of equal access to Czech citizenship of all permanent residents of the Czech Republic their ethnic origin notwithstanding, the Commission made a controversial decision to treat the exclusion from citizenship which was de facto based on ethnicity as a ‘civil and political’ rights issue, rather than a minority rights issue. This dubious decision, allowed the Commission to distinguish its pre-accession involvement in the reforms in the Czech Republic on the one hand, and in Latvia and Estonia on the other, where the exclusion of ethnic minorities from the access to citizenship was regarded as a key issue pertaining to the protection of minority rights. The ill-articulated position of the Commission is due, this paper suggests, mainly to the limitations on the EU’s involvement in the Member States’ citizenship domain and de facto comes down to the application of different pre-accession standards to different minority groups in the candidate countries. To ensure genuine protection of ethnic minorities in the Member States-to-be, the EU has to alter its approach to the issues of ethnicity-based exclusion from citizenship in the course of the future expansions of the Union.
Roma migrations in Central and Eastern Europe: from the Middle Ages until nowadays a case study of Czech-Slovak Roma migration trends and flows  [cached]
Wadim Strielkowski
Sfera Politicii , 2011,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the ethnical aspects of migration. Specifically, it tries to explain the migration decisions of an ethnical minority on the example of Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. The study describes the history of Roma migration from its origins until today. Additionally, the paper focuses on a case study of Slovak Roma asylum migrations to the Czech Republic in 1999-2006 and analysis the socio-economic reasons and outcomes of these migrations. We find that Roma migrations might have very different grounds: alongside with economic they can be social, cultural, etc. We also find that push factors” explain Roma migration better than economic incentives.
The Limits of the State: Political Participation and Representation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia  [PDF]
Eva Sobotka
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2001,
Abstract: The author analyses the political involvement of Roma in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the 1990s. It is argued that while Romani political participation has developed substantially over the years, political representation has not yet been attained. The author identifies models of involvement in state structures as related to the effectiveness of political participation and influence on policy formation. Romani leaders often put the bulk of the blame on governments for the absence of real political representation of Roma. The author argues that trans-national organizations have formed financial and social incentives to Roma industry that have played a key role as a 'brain drain' in attracting those who might have otherwise been involved in party politics. While political systems and demographics have precluded the possibility for an ethnic Romani political party in the Czech Republic, the Romani leaders in Hungary and Slovakia have yet to fully utilise the electroal potential of the Romani electorate.
Unfavourable birth outcomes of the Roma women in the Czech Republic and the potential explanations: a population-based study
Martin Bobak, Jan Dejmek, Ivo Solansky, Radim J Sram
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-106
Abstract: A population-based study recruited 8938 non-Roma and 1388 Roma hospitalised singleton births that occurred in two Czech districts (Teplice and Prachatice) between 1995 and 2004. During their stay in hospital, mothers completed a questionnaire on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Data on maternal height and weight and on infants' birth weight and gestational age were taken from hospital records.Birth weight and gestational age of Roma infants was 373 (SE 15) g and 0.92 (0.05) weeks, respectively, lower than in non-Roma infants. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural factors reduced these differences to 133 (18) g and 0.57 (0.06) weeks, respectively (all p-values < 0.001). In terms of binary outcomes, the Roma vs. non-Roma odds ratios were 4.5 (95% CI 3.7–5.4) for low birth weight (< 2500 g), 2.8 (2.2–3.4) for preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation), and 2.9 (2.5–3.4) for intrauterine grown retardation (<10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age); controlling for all covariates reduced these odds ratios to 1.7 (1.3–2.2), 1.5 (1.1–2.0) and 1.3 (1.0–1.6), respectively. Maternal education made the largest contribution to the ethnic differences; the role of health behaviours was relatively modest.There are striking differences in birth outcomes between Roma and non-Roma mothers. The causes of these differences are complex but largely socioeconomic.The Roma people (Romanies, Gypsies, of northern Indian origin) are the most important ethnic minority in Central and Eastern Europe. It has been known for a long time that the socioeconomic conditions of most Roma people in Central and Eastern Europe are worse than those of the general population, and it has been suspected that their health follows a similar pattern. However, the main conclusion of two recent reviews was that there is a striking lack of information about the Roma people [1,2]; even the estimates of the size of their pop
International Action to Prevent Discrimination: The Situation of the Roma Community in the Field of Education  [PDF]
Judtih Gimenez
European Diversity and Autonomy Papers - EDAP , 2010,
Abstract: This article discusses why recent discriminatory incidents against the Roma community, one of the biggest minorities in Europe, rise in racism and anti-Roma hate speech in public discourse concerns international organizations. The first part of this article briefly outlines human rights bodies’ definition and regulation on the principle of equality and non-discrimination generally and in particular with regard to Roma education. The second part compares recent international human rights’ conclusions on Croatia, the Czech Republic, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Slovakia with regard to the human rights developments of the Roma minority, and to the implementation of their national anti-discrimination legislation. In addition, the latter traces the debate on the access of Roma children to education in those countries, as well as reviews the European Court of Human Rights' case law, in particular with regard to two cases of Roma segregated education in Croatia and the Czech Republic. Finally, some conclusions are drawn as to how overcome the vicious circle of poverty and discrimination faced by the Roma population, in particular in the field of Roma education.
EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland
Peter Vermeersch
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2003,
Abstract: To what extent has the EU's growing concern for norms of minority protection influenced domestic policy-making in the candidate member states in Central Europe? In order to begin to explore this question, the present article assesses the impact of both domestic and international factors on the development of policies towards national minorities in three Central europen countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Following an introduction, which places the subject in the context of the larger debates on minority rights, the first part of the article describes the ways in which regional organizations in Europe have attempted to persuade or induce the three countries under consideration to adopt minority rights policies. The second section then describes policy developments in Central Europe and considers the factors that have contributed to policy shifts. Finally, the third part reflects on the uneven impact of the EU's accession criteria on the development of minority rights policies in the candidate countries and concludes that the EU's impact on policy has crucially depended both on domestic interests and receptivity to international concerns for internal security.
Overview of healthcare system in the Czech Republic
Judita Kinkorová, Ond?ej Topol?an
EPMA Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13167-012-0139-9
Abstract: The Czech Republic is centrally located in the heart of Europe, with the area of 78.865 square kilometres [1], and with an estimated population of 10,542,080 in 2011 (Figure 1), ethnically and linguistically Czech (94%). Other ethnic groups include Germans, Roma, Vietnamese, and Poles. Czech Republic has a democratic parliamentary system of government and a well-developed economy. The Czech Republic has been a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since December 1995, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) since February 1999 and a member of the European Union (EU) since May 2004 [1].After World War II, the political system in Czechoslovakia was greatly affected by the introduction of a Soviet-style Communist regime, as it was in the other countries of central and east Europe. In February 1948, the Communist Party became the only autonomous political entity.After the revolutionary events, so-called "Velvet revolution" of November 1989 which brought about the downfall of the Communist regime, the entire country faced the uneasy task of resuming its pre-Communist traditions and building a democratic political system. A wide diversity of political parties was established even before the break-up of Czechoslovakia on December 31, 1992. The constitution of the Czech Republic, which became valid on the day of the birth of the new state, explicitly defined civil rights, the relationship between the executive and legislative branches of power, and the independence of the judiciary.With an estimated population of 10,542,080 at 30 June 2011, compared to 9.3 million at the beginning of the twentieth century, the population growth of the Czech Republic was limited and characterised by low fertility rates and loss of population in and around World War I and World War II. Population growth resumed until 1994 when the population was 10.3 million. From 1994 to 2005 natural growth was negative and the population decreased to 1
Language training in the Czech Republic
Markéta Ba?áková
Forced Migration Review , 2011,
Abstract: Language skills are crucial for the integration of refugees. In the Czech Republic, all persons granted international protection have the legal right to language tuition…
Immigration of Roma from Republic of Serbia  [cached]
Tatjana Vukeli?
Sfera Politicii , 2013,
Abstract: The questions of immigration are topics of high interest for the contemporary migration studies. Particularly relevant for the Western European countries is the immigration of Roma. This study analyzes the case of Roma asylum-seekers from Republic of Serbia to Federal Republic of Germany, which assumed a new dimension following the visa liberation. Focus of this article are the links among the social, economical, transitional and political conditions of Roma asylum-seeking, as well as an analysis of potential networks and knowledge transfer among Roma. In particular is to be understand if there is any transnational networking between Roma in home countries and abroad as well if Roma asylum-seekers have to be seen as perpetrators or rather victims of the political occurrences in the concerning country.
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