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Comment on Kokshoorn, B, and Blankers, BJ ‘Response to Grisedale, KS and van Daal, A: comparison of STR profiling from low template DNA extracts with and without the consensus profiling method’  [cached]
Grisedale Kelly,van Daal Angela
Investigative Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-4-2
Abstract: Kokshoorn and Blankers responded to our recent article by saying that replicate analysis and consensus profiling of low template samples was best in terms of reliability and objectivity. We agree that the consensus approach has benefits, particularly in eliminating non-repeating spurious alleles from the final profile. However, with the development of statistical models that can accommodate stochastic effects and allele drop in, it may be beneficial to perform a single amplification with three times the amount of template, since much information is lost from the profile using the consensus approach.
Comparison of STR profiling from low template DNA extracts with and without the consensus profiling method
Kelly S Grisedale, Angela van Daal
Investigative Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-3-14
Abstract: Please see related article:http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/4/1/1 webciteA total of 100 pg and 25 pg DNA samples were amplified with the PowerPlex? ESI 16 Kits using 30 or 34 PCR cycles. A total of 100 pg and 25 pg DNA samples were then divided into three aliquots for a 34-cycle PCR and a consensus profile derived that included alleles that appeared in at least two of the replicates. Profiles from the non-split samples were compared to the consensus profiles focusing on peak heights, allele drop out, locus drop out and allele drop in.Performing DNA profiling on non-split extracts produced profiles with a higher percentage of correct loci compared to the consensus profiling technique. Consensus profiling did eliminate any spurious alleles from the final profile. However, there was a notable increase in allele and locus drop out when a LTDNA sample was divided prior to amplification.The loss of information that occurs when a sample is split for amplification indicates that consensus profiling may not be producing the most informative DNA profile for samples where the template amount is limited.
Special issue dedicated to Professor Deo Strümpfer  [cached]
G.P. de Bruin,Freddie Crous
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i2.945
Abstract: Dedicated to Professor Deo Strümpfer
STR MARKERS. GENOTYPING APPLICATIONS  [PDF]
A.Anghel,C. Marian,Mara Pitulescu,I. O. Sirbu
Annals of West University of Timi?oara : Series of Biology , 2001,
Abstract: STR (short tandem repeats) loci consist of short, repetitive sequence elements of 2-8 bp in length. These abundant repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are rich source of highly polymorphic markers. There are literally hundreds of STR systems which have been mapped throughout the human genome. Several dozen have been investigated for application to human identity testing. These STR loci are found on almost every chromosome in the genome. They may be amplified using a variety of PCR primers. Tetranucleotide repeats have been most popular among forensic scientists due to their fidelity in PCR amplification although some tri- and pentanucleotide repeats are also in use. In this paper we intend (far from being exhaustive) to present a synthesis of the characteristics of these genetic markers and their applications in genotyping, giving as an example the use of the STRs in a paternity testing case.
Template Matching using Statistical Model and Parametric Template for Multi-Template  [PDF]
Chin-Sheng Chen, Jian-Jhe Huang, Chien-Liang Huang
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43B009
Abstract:

This paper represents a template matching using statistical model and parametric template for multi-template. This algorithm consists of two phases: training and matching phases. In the training phase, the statistical model created by principal component analysis method (PCA) can be used to synthesize multi-template. The advantage of PCA is to reduce the variances of multi-template. In the matching phase, the normalized cross correlation (NCC) is employed to find the candidates in inspection images. The relationship between image block and multi-template is built to use parametric template method. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the conventional template matching and parametric template. Furthermore, the proposed method is more robust than conventional template method.

Factors affecting the STR amplification success in poorly preserved bone samples
Mikko T Putkonen, Jukka U Palo, Jose M Cano, Minttu Hedman, Antti Sajantila
Investigative Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-1-9
Abstract: In autosomal STR analyses, the most important factor was the DNA quantity, followed by the degradation, whereas in Y-chromosomal STR analysis, the most important factor was the degradation. Inhibition was a minor concern in STR analyses of poorly preserved bones.The success of PCR amplification depends largely on the template DNA quality (amount and degradation), but these problems can be partly compensated for by different primer design and amplification chemistry. Consequently, the relative roles of the compromising factors differ according to the kit used.Geneticists working in the fields of forensics and ancient DNA are frequently forced to attempt the recovery of amplifiable DNA from quantificatively and qualitatively suboptimal material. Successful PCR amplification from old and/or otherwise poorly preserved specimens is challenging, because the success depends on several factors, such as the amount of recoverable DNA, the level of DNA damage and the inhibiting agents present. In addition, the chemistry and methods used for DNA extraction and amplification may have a strong effect on the amplification success. The role of these different attributes has been recognized [1-3], but their relative significance has rarely been assessed.In this study, the roles of the compromising factors were evaluated by investigating the effect on PCR success of both amount and quality of the template DNA, and of the amplification kit used. To accomplish this goal we estimated the relative roles of various factors simultaneously using univariate variance analysis. Owing to the stochastic effects associated with the analyses of samples of low DNA quantity, evaluation of the compromising factors is important in increasing the reliability and efficiency of the analysis [4-6]. Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the number attempts of recovering DNA from poor quality samples, such as archaeological and forensic bones [6-8].DNA extracts of poorly preserved bone samples wer
Current STR-based techniques in forensic science
Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: DNA analysis in forensic science is mainly based on short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping. The conventional analysis is a three-step process of DNA extraction, amplification and detection. An overview of various techniques that are currently in use and are being actively researched for STR typing is presented. The techniques are separated into STR amplification and detection. New techniques for forensic STR analysis focus on increasing sensitivity, resolution and discrimination power for suboptimal samples. These are achieved by shifting primer-binding sites, using high-fidelity and tolerant polymerases and applying novel methods to STR detection. Examples in which STRs are used in criminal investigations are provided and future research directions are discussed.
Quantum Template Matching  [PDF]
M. Sasaki,A. Carlini,R. Jozsa
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.64.022317
Abstract: We consider the quantum analogue of the pattern matching problem, which consists of classifying a given unknown system according to certain predefined pattern classes. We address the problem of quantum template matching in which each pattern class ${\cal C}_i$ is represented by a known quantum state $\hat g_i$ called a template state, and our task is to find a template which optimally matches a given unknown quantum state $\hat f$. We set up a precise formulation of this problem in terms of the optimal strategy for an associated quantum Bayesian inference problem. We then investigate various examples of quantum template matching for qubit systems, considering the effect of allowing a finite number of copies of the input state $\hat f$. We compare quantum optimal matching strategies and semiclassical strategies and demonstrate an entanglement assisted enhancement of performance in the general quantum optimal strategy.
Biometric Template Security Using Invisible Watermarking With Minimum Degradation in Quality of Template
Rajkumar Yadav,Kamaldeep,Ravi Saini
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach to enhance the Biometric Template Security by using Invisible Watermarking. For embedding the watermark in the Biometric Template, we used Parity Checker Method [2]. The use of Parity Checker Method ensures that the change in Biometric Template should be minimum. The watermark that is embedded in the Biometric Template may contain person’s name, person’s address or some unique features of the person. The same watermark is embedded four times in the Biometric Template to enhance its security so that if one watermark is changed by attacker, the other watermark remains intact. For each biometric template there will be a secret key that is used for embedding of watermark. The maintenance of secret key will be responsibility of database manager. The same key can be used for all biometric templates which reduces the responsibility of database manager up to a greater extent but at the cost of security. So, we used the separate key for each Biometric Template.
Biometric Template Security  [cached]
Anil K. Jain,Karthik Nandakumar,Abhishek Nagar
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/579416
Abstract: Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.
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