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What happened to Sayf al-Rijal?
Sher Banu A.L. Khan
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2012,
Abstract: Sayf al-Rijal is the least known Sheikh al-Islam, the highest religious appointee in the court of Aceh Dar al-Salam, in the seventeenth century. Yet, he replaced the renowned Sheikh Nur al-Din in 1643 and in turn was succeeded by another famous ulama Abd al- Ra’uf al-Sinkili in 1661. As of date, there is very little information on al-Rijal and his writings after he won the struggle against al-Raniri and was appointed as the Sheikh al-Islam by Sultanah SafiatuddinSyah in 1643. So, what happened to Sayf al-Rijal after his appointment? This article provides an explanation and throws some light on this mysterious figure.
What happened to the Cosmological QCD Phase Transition?
Hwang, W-Y. P.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1142/S0217732307025200
Abstract: The scenario that some first-order phase transitions may have taken place in the early Universe offers us one of the most intriguing and fascinating questions in cosmology. Indeed, the role played by the latent "heat" or energy released in the phase transition is highly nontrivial and may lead to some surprising, important results. In this paper, we take the wisdom that the cosmological QCD phase transition, which happened at a time between 10^(-5) sec and 10^(-4) sec or at the temperature of about 150 MeV and accounts for confinement of quarks and gluons to within hadrons, would be of first order. To get the essence out of the scenario, it is sufficient to approximate the true QCD vacuum as one of degenerate theta-vacua and when necessary we try to model it effectively via a complex scalar field with spontaneous symmetry breaking. We examine how and when "pasted" or "patched" domain walls are formed, how long such walls evolve in the long run, and we believe that the significant portion of dark matter could be accounted for in terms of such domain-wall structure and its remnants. Of course, the cosmological QCD phase transition happened in the way such that the false vacua associated with baryons and many other color-singlet objects did not disappear (that is, using the bag-model language, there are bags of radius 1.0 fermi for the baryons) - but the amount of the energy remained in the false vacua is negligible. The latent energy released due to the conversion of the false vacua to the true vacua, in the form of "pasted" or "patched" domain walls in the short run and their numerous evolved objects, should make the concept of the "radiation-dominated" epoch, or of the "matter-dominated" epoch to be re-examined.
Can People Guess What Happened to Others from Their Reactions?  [PDF]
Dhanya Pillai, Elizabeth Sheppard, Peter Mitchell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049859
Abstract: Are we able to infer what happened to a person from a brief sample of his/her behaviour? It has been proposed that mentalising skills can be used to retrodict as well as predict behaviour, that is, to determine what mental states of a target have already occurred. The current study aimed to develop a paradigm to explore these processes, which takes into account the intricacies of real-life situations in which reasoning about mental states, as embodied in behaviour, may be utilised. A novel task was devised which involved observing subtle and naturalistic reactions of others in order to determine the event that had previously taken place. Thirty-five participants viewed videos of real individuals reacting to the researcher behaving in one of four possible ways, and were asked to judge which of the four ‘scenarios’ they thought the individual was responding to. Their eye movements were recorded to establish the visual strategies used. Participants were able to deduce successfully from a small sample of behaviour which scenario had previously occurred. Surprisingly, looking at the eye region was associated with poorer identification of the scenarios, and eye movement strategy varied depending on the event experienced by the person in the video. This suggests people flexibly deploy their attention using a retrodictive mindreading process to infer events.
Cardiac arrest following a glucose 30% bolus: what happened?
Philippe Goutorbe, Nadia Kenane, Julien Bordes, Christophe Jego, Ambroise Montcriol, Eric Meaudre
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6216
Abstract: One hour later hypoglycemia was detected, and 20 ml of 30% glucose was given intravenously. At the end of the injection, ventricular fibrillation developed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation successfully restored adequate circulation within 12 minutes. Blood analysis performed using an ABL 700 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) 1 minute after beginning cardiac resuscitation showed serum potassium of 5.1 mmol/l, ionised calcium of 1.1 mmol/l, and serum sodium of 140 mmol/l. The empty ampoule was checked, and had contained the correct solution. The cardiac rhythm had been normal before the glucose bolus was given, but sinus arrest with junctional or idioventricular escape rhythm developed at the end of bolus administration, immediately followed by ventricular fibrillation (Figure 1). The patient was discharged 2 weeks later without any sequelae.Electrocardiographic changes are not usually seen until serum potassium exceeds 6.0–6.5 mmol/l. Disappearance of the P wave is usually seen when serum potassium exceeds 8 mmol/l [1]. We were surprised, however, to find changes in the absence of any increase in serum potassium. There was neither hyponatremia nor hypocalcemia, both of which increase sensitivity to hyperkalemia [2,3]. Even if serum potassium was normal, we think it possible there could have been local hyperkalemia, which led to sinus arrest and then to ventricular fibrillation. The mechanism of this hyperkalemia, we postulate, is that the high potassium concentration (1,074 mmol/l) in the deadspace of the tubing was flushed by the glucose, corresponding to a 11 mEq intravenous bolus of K+.The present case highlights a dangerous aspect of using concentrated solutions for K+ therapy. Although an infusion rate of 17 mEq/hour is usually considered safe, in the particular situation here, with a central venous catheter in an intrathoracic position, flushing the catheter created a bolus injection. Theoretically, such a poorly mixed bolus can cause dangerous concentrations in
Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation and what John Bell might have thought of it  [PDF]
N. David Mermin
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Christopher Fuchs and R\"udiger Schack have developed a way of understanding science, which, among other things, resolves many of the conceptual puzzles of quantum mechanics that have vexed people for the past nine decades. They call it QBism. I speculate on how John Bell might have reacted to QBism, and I explain the many ways in which QBism differs importantly from the orthodox ways of thinking about quantum mechanics associated with the term "Copenhagen interpretation."
Nitrogen drives the growth of secondary forests in the Amazon: what analogies with temperate and boreal forests?
Tonon G
Forest@ , 2007, DOI: -
Abstract: Nitrogen drives the growth of secondary forests in the Amazon: what analogies with temperate and boreal forests? A comment is made on a recent paper published on Nature (Davidson et al. 2007), in which the authors demonstrate that in the young secondary forests in the Amazon a conservative nitrogen cycle prevails and nitrogen is a key factor driving forest growth. Analogies are also discussed with recent findings on the role of nitrogen deposition on the carbon balance of temperate and boreal forests (Magnani et al. 2007).
What Happened? Exploring the Relation between Traumatic Stress and Provisional Mental Health Diagnoses for Children and Youth  [PDF]
Kim Arbeau, Laura Theall, Keith Willoughby, Jared M. J. Berman, Shannon L. Stewart
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.814157
Abstract: Objective: Traumatic stress can impact behaviours and neurological functioning of children and youth, with symptoms appearing similar to behaviours associated with psychiatric diagnoses (Siegfried et al., 2016). This study sought to examine the link between provisional diagnoses and trauma in a sample of children/youth receiving mental health services. Methods: A sample of 6649 children/youth (59% males) aged 4 - 18 years (Mage = 11.99, SD = 3.57) receiving services from 45 mental health agencies in Ontario were assessed using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (ChYMH) instrument (Stewart et al., 2015a). We examined the interRAI Traumatic Life Events Collaborative Action Plan (CAP; Stewart et al., 2015b) and provisional diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), mood disorders, substance-related disorders, and sleep disorders. Results: Compared to boys, girls were more likely to trigger the interRAI Traumatic Life Events CAP and to have a provisional diagnosis of anxiety, mood, and sleep disorders. Boys were more likely to have a provisional diagnosis of ADHD than girls. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that boys diagnosed with substance-related disorders had 1.79 higher odds of triggering the interRAI Traumatic Life Events CAP. ADHD, anxiety disorders, RAD, and mood disorders were also each significant predictors of potential traumatic stress regardless of sex. Conclusions/Implications: Findings suggest that several provisional diagnoses were significantly related to potential traumatic stress. Clinicians may find value in assessing for trauma, asking the question “What happened?” when confirming a psychiatric diagnosis in order to determine the best plan of care.
PREPARING FOR THE SECOND ACCESSION ROUND AFTER COPENHAGEN - WHAT LESSONS CAN BE LEARNED FROM THE FIRST ROUND OF NEGOTIATIONS?
Pjer Simunovic
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2002,
Abstract: As the title reveals it too, the article tries to deal with the enlargement process that the European Union is facing nowadays. The author focuses on the lessons that can be learned from the “First Round of Negotiations”, as these are of great importance for the countries that will not enter in the “Copenhagen Round” – Bulgaria and Romania, which have not yet been able to conclude the negotiations, Turkey, an “official candidate” but with whom the negotiations still have to begin and the “Stabilisation and Association Process” countries – Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia-Montenegro. Taking into account that this is a less homogenous group than the “Copenhagen Round” group (in terms of their overall political, economic and social shape), the EU has to tackle with particular attention the future Rounds and to learn from the experience of the “Copenhagen Round”.
What Happened to Africa?  [PDF]
J. Peter Pham
Human Rights & Human Welfare , 2008,
Abstract:
What happened to modern physics?  [PDF]
P. Shabajee,K. Postlethwaite
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Chaos theory are three of the most significant scientific advances of the 20th Century - each fundamentally changing our understanding of the physical universe. The authors ask why the UK National Curriculum in science almost entirely ignores them. Children and young people regularly come into contact with the language, concepts and implications of these theories through the media and through new technologies, and they are the basis of many contemporary scientific and technological developments. There is surely, therefore, an urgent need to include the concepts of '20th Century physics' within the curriculum.
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