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Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Radix Codonopsis  [cached]
Xican Li,Yaoting Zheng,Dongfeng Chen
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/jice.20121225011845
Abstract: Aim: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Codonopsis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about 250 years. The study tried to investigate its antioxidant activity, then to discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: Radix Codonopsis was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanolic extract of Radix Codonopsis. The extract was then determined by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical), ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo- thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical] assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract were determined by spectrophotometric method. Results: The ethanolic extract of Radix Codonopsis showed protective effect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 1180.28±137.73 μg/mL ) and exhibited DPPH· scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, Fe3+ reducing, and Cu2+ reducing abilities, and the IC50 values were 3857.79±35.51, 271.82±5.66, 759.99±31.65, and 733.02±9.67 μg/mL, respectively. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract were calculated as 12.56±0.56 and 11.95±0.52 mg quercetin/g, respectively. Conclusion: Radix Codonopsis can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·), donating electron (e). Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the existences of flavonoids or phenolic acids. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000): 1-8]
Sustainable utilization of Radix Glycyrrhizae for protection of ecology environment and herbal resources  [cached]
Xian-Ze MENG,Yong-Hua SU
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2006,
Abstract: Radix Glycyrrhizae is a commonly used herbal drug for traditional Chinese medicine in China, and it is also an important material for drug, food, chemical industry, and dye industry. Furthermore, in Northwest China, Radix Glycyrrhizae acts as a key plant for preventing desertification, which currently is the most serious environmental problem in China. This report concentrated on discussing the great potential value of Glycyrrhiza on ecosystem, introducing the principles of protection and sustainable utilization of Glycyrrhiza resource, offering the suitable methods of utilization, and suggesting how to carry out the research on the substitute drugs. To protect the ecosystem and herbal resource of Radix Glycyrrhizae, we should use this herb in a more reasonable way.
Immunoregulatory function of Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide in tumor-bearing mice  [cached]
Xiao-bing LI
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To observe the effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide on regulatory T cells (Treg) in spleen and lymphocyte transformation ratio in tumor-bearing mice so as to explore the mechanisms of its immunoregulatory function.Methods: Fifty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, untreated group, cyclophosphamide group, Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide group and Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide plus cyclophosphamide group. Except normal group, mice were subcutaneously implanted H22 tumor cells in the right axillary region. After 24 h, mice in normal and untreated group were subcutaneously injected with physiological saline, while mice in the cyclophosphamide group were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide and mice in Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide group were subcutaneously injected with polysaccharide. Fourteen days later, Treg cells of spleen were detected by flow cytometry and lymphocyte transformation ratio was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method. Results: The proportion of Treg cells was significantly higher in the untreated group than in the normal group, and was lower in the Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide group than in the untreated group (P<0.01). Lymphocyte transformation ratio in the Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide group was higher than that in the cyclophosphamide group. There was no interaction between Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide and cyclophosphamide.Conclusion: Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide can regulate the cellular immunity disorders of tumor-bearing mice by decreasing proportion of Treg cells and increasing spleen lymphocyte transformation ratio.
Dose-response patterns of Radix Glycyrrhizae in Shanghan Lun  [cached]
Xue YANG,Xiao-qiang YUE
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2009,
Abstract: : In order to explore the dose-response patterns of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases), all prescriptions containing Gancao in Shanghan Lun were analyzed by frequency and hierarchical clustering analysis. The doses of Gancao used in Shanghan Lun ranged from six zhu (Chinese unit, and one zhu is equal to 0.65 g) to four liang (Chinese unit, and one liang is equal to 15.625 g). Doses of one, two, three or four liang were commonly used. One liang Gancao as juvantia was usually matched with Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae), Xingren (Semen Armeniacae) and Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) for restricting the excessive diaphoresis of Mahuang. Two liang Gancao was often matched with some couple drugs, such as Guizhi and Shaoyao (Radix Paeoniae), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum) and Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis) and Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis), for warming yang to supplement qi, nourishing yin, detoxifying Fuzi, and preventing qi impairment from heat evil. Three liang Gancao was mainly matched with Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) or Renshen (Radix Ginseng) for treating middle energizer emesis. Four liang Gancao was matched with Ganjiang or tonifying herbs for invigorating vital qi and relieving spasm in deficiency syndromes with contraction, palpitation or diarrhea. Gancao is used for treating many syndromes in Shanghan Lun. It is frequently used to treat excess or heat syndromes with one or two liang in a dose and deficiency or cold syndromes with three or four liang in a dose.
Cytoprotective Activity of Glycyrrhizae radix Extract against Arsenite-Induced Cytotoxicity  [PDF]
Sang Chan Kim,Sook Jahr Park,Jong Rok Lee,Jung Cheol Seo,Chae Ha Yang,Sung Hui Byun
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem014
Abstract: Licorice, Glycyrrhizae radix, is one of the herbal medicines in East Asia that has been commonly used for treating various diseases, including stomach disorders. This study investigated the effect of licorice on arsenite (As)-induced cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells, a rat hepatocyte-derived cell line. Cell viability was significantly diminished in As-treated H4IIE cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, results from flow cytometric assay and DNA laddering in H4IIE cells showed that As treatment induced apoptotic cell death by activating caspase-3. Licorice (0.1 and 1.0 mg ml−1) treatment significantly inhibited cell death and the activity of caspase-3 in response to As exposure. These results demonstrate that licorice induced a cytoprotective effect against As-induced cell death by inhibition of caspase-3.
Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Induced by Radix Glycyrrhizae Polysaccharide  [PDF]
Xiaobing Li,Xiaojuan He,Biao Liu,Li Xu,Cheng Lu,Hongyan Zhao,Xuyan Niu,Shilin Chen,Aiping Lu
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066557
Abstract: Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide (GP), the most important component of Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been reported to have many immunopharmacological activities. However, the mechanism by which GP affects dendritic cells (DCs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of GP on murine bone marrow-derived DCs and the potential pathway through which GP exerts this effect. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from murine bone marrow and induced to become DCs by culturing with GM-CSF and IL-4. Six days later, DCs were divided into three groups: control group, GP group and LPS group. After 48 h of treatment, phenotypic figures and antigen uptake ability were determined by FACS analysis. The proliferation of DC-stimulated allogenic CD3+ T cells was detected by WST-1. IL-12 p70 and IFN-γ, which are secreted by DCs and CD3+ T cells respectively, were quantified by ELISA. Additionally, IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. Alterations in TLR4-related signaling pathways were examined by performing an antibody neutralization experiment. Treatment of DCs with GP resulted in the enhanced expression of the cell surface molecules CD80, CD86 and MHC I-A/I-E. GP also increased the production of IL-12 p70 by DCs in a time-dependent manner. The endocytosis of FITC-dextran by DCs was suppressed by GP administration. Furthermore, GP-treated DCs enhanced both the proliferation and IFN-γ secretion of allogenic CD3+ T cells. Finally, the effects of GP on DCs were partially reduced by using inhibitors of TLR4, NF-κB, p38 MAPK or JNK. In conclusion, GP can induce the maturation of DCs, and does so, in part, by regulating a TLR4-related signaling pathway.
Determination of 11 carbamate pesticide residues in Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma and its extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with gel permeation chromatographic clean-up

YANG Ruzhen,WANG Jinhua,ZHANG Rong,WANG Minglin,HUANG Mei,

色谱 , 2010,
Abstract: An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-ESI MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of 11 carbamate pesticide residues in Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma and its extracts. After extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), the samples were determined by UPLC-ESI MS/MS. Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma and its extracts were analyzed as model examples. When the spiked levels were 0.02, 0.04, and 0.1 mg/kg in the samples, the average recoveries of 11 carbamate pesticides from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma were obtained from 72.2% to 94.0%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.7% to 7.8%. The average recoveries of 11 carbamate pesticides in Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma extract ranged from 73.8% to 94.7% and the RSDs ranged from 1.5% to 12.7%. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of this method can meet the requirements of the pesticide residue analysis, and the method can be applied to determine carbamate pesticide residues in Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma, Astragali radix and their extracts.
Down-Regulation of Treg Cells and Up-Regulation of Th1/Th2 Cytokine Ratio Were Induced by Polysaccharide from Radix Glycyrrhizae in H22 Hepatocarcinoma Bearing Mice  [PDF]
Xiaojuan He,Xiaobing Li,Biao Liu,Li Xu,Hongyan Zhao,Aiping Lu
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16108343
Abstract: Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide (GP) possesses multiple pharmacological activities. However, the effect of GP on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GP on Treg cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice. The results demonstrated that GP inhibits tumor progression. In the lymph nodes of the tumor microenvironment and spleen, the proportion of Treg cells was significantly higher in the tumor-bearing mice. GP administration down-regulated the population of Treg cells (P < 0.01) and decreased lymph node Foxp3 and IL-10 mRNA expression (P < 0.01). In addition, GP treatment decreased IL-10 and TGF-β level (P < 0.01) and increased IL-2 and IL-12p70 level in serum (P < 0.01). In conclusion, GP reduced the proportion of Treg cells and Foxp3 lowered expression in Treg cells, and up-regulated Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in serum in the tumor bearing mice, which might partially cause the inhibition of tumor growth.
The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  [PDF]
Hassan Malekinejad,Arash Alizadeh,Hadi Cheraghi,Saeed Meshkini
Veterinary Research Forum , 2010,
Abstract: The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE) on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10) as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05) the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.
Comparison of the Protective Effects of Radix Astragali, a-Lipoic Acid, and Vitamin E on Acute Acoustic Trauma
Min Xiong, Huangwen Lai, Chuanhong Yang, Weiyi Huang, Jian Wang, Xiaoyan Fu and Qinglian He
Clinical Medicine Insights: Ear, Nose and Throat , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMENT.S10711
Abstract: Objective: Oxidative damage is a critical role which involves hearing loss induced by impulse noise. That exogenous antioxidant agents reduce noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been well demonstrated in both animal studies and clinical practices. Choosing a stronger and more effective antioxidant is very important for treatment of NIHL. Vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali are the most commonly used anti-oxidants for cochlear oxidative damage from acoustic trauma. In this study, the protective effects of radix astragali, α-lipoic acid, and vitamin E on acute acoustic trauma are investigated. Methods: Guinea pigs in the experimental groups were intragastrically administered vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali. Auditory thresholds were assessed by sound-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) at click and tone bursts of 8, 16 and 32 kHz, 24 hours before and 72 hours after exposure to impulse noise. Cochlear malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were detected. Hair cell damage was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali significantly reduced ABR deficits, reduced hair cell damage, and decreased the concentrations of MDA. α-lipoic acid and radix astragali were better than vitamin E, and there were no significant differences between α-lipoic acid and radix astragali. Conclusions: α-lipoic acid or radix astragali are recommended for treatment of NIHL.
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