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Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Menarche is the first menstrual bleeding in female human beings. From both social and medical perspectives it is often considered the central event of female puberty as it signals the possibility of fertility. Menarche or adolescence is the transitional period linking childhood to adulthood period and involves physical, biological and psychosexual changes in a girl. Menopause is defined as the time of termination of ovarian function resulting in permanent amenorrhea .Menopausal age is not related to menarche, race, socio-economic status, number of pregnancies and lactation; or taking oral contraceptives. Menarche or Menstruation is a transitional physiological period when a girl matures from childhood to the state of adulthood, lack of knowledge regarding the various physical changes and fear of future imposes considerable mental stress and anxiety in the minds of these adolescents. A regular follow up is necessary in women on HRT. Also proper counseling is mandatory.
Psychosomatic Menopausal Experiences in Nigerian Women-The Influence of Age at Menarche and Age at Menopause  [PDF]
O. Adegoke,B.O. Iranloye,A. Osibogun
Asian Journal of Epidemiology , 2008,
Abstract: A questionnaire survey of 108 randomly selected menopausal women in the Lagos metropolis (Nigeria) was undertaken. They were requested to report on any menopausal symptoms experienced, age at menarche and menopause, present ages and marital status. The most common menopausal symptoms reported were hot flushes (83.7%) and vaginal dryness (49.0%). Psychosomatic symptoms included irritability, insomnia, dizziness and depression. Most respondents reported mild or moderate severity of the experienced symptoms. Respondents who experienced depression were observed to have started menstruation at a statistically younger age (mean 12.4 years) than those who did not experience it (mean 14.9 years). On the other hand respondents who experienced insomnia started menstruation at a statistically older age (mean 15.8 years) than those who did not experience it (14.1 years). For irritability and dizziness there was no statistical difference in age at menarche between those who experienced the symptoms and those who did not. The present study also revealed that age at the onset of menopause did not differ in those who experienced and those who did not experience depression, insomnia and irritability. However there was a statistical difference in age at menopause between respondents who experienced dizziness and those who did not, with the mean age being higher (52.6 years) in respondents who experienced it. There appears to be no strong patterned correlation between age at menarche and at menopause and psychosomatic menopausal experiences. Age at the onstart of menstruation and onset of menopause may not play a deciding role in the experience of most psychosomatic menopausal symptoms.
Onset of Epilepsy In Menopause: Presentation of 5 Cases  [PDF]
Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The distribution of epilepsy frequency is equal among women and men. However, menarche, pregnancy, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives may affect the course of epilepsy in women. Few studies in literature have reported that the onset of epilepsy may first occur in menopause in women who have no previous history of epilepsy.In this presentation, we will discuss 5 cases who experienced their first seizures in posmenopausal period.
Fetal and life course origins of serum lipids in mid-adulthood: results from a prospective cohort study
Per E Gustafsson, Urban Janlert, T?res Theorell, Hugo Westerlund, Anne Hammarstr?m
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-484
Abstract: A cohort (effective n = 824, 77%) was prospectively examined with respect to self-reported socioeconomic status as well as stressors (e.g., financial strain, low decision latitude, separation, death or illness of a close one, unemployment) at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years; summarized in cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and cumulative adversity. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Participants were assessed for serum lipids (total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), apolipoproteins (A1 and B) and height and weight (for the calculation of body mass index, BMI) at age 43. Current health behavior (alcohol consumption, smoking and snuff use) was reported at age 43.Cumulative life course exposures were related to several outcomes; mainly explained by cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage in the total sample (independently of current health behaviors but attenuated by current BMI) and also by cumulative adversity in women (partly explained by current health behavior but not by BMI). Birth weight was related only to triglycerides in women, independently of life course exposures, health behaviors and BMI. No significant association of either exposure was observed in men.Social circumstances during the life course seem to be of greater importance than birth weight for dyslipidemia and serum lipid levels in adulthood.Since the early 1990 s, the research field of life course epidemiology has studied the health effects of biological and social exposures during different periods of life and the corresponding long-term processes spanning over the life course [1]. One line of research focuses on fetal origins of disease, with one hypothesis stating that suboptimal metabolic conditions during fetal life, e.g. indicated by lower birth weight, increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood [2]. Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular mortality [3,4] and to predict a
Determination of the mean age at menarche and factors affecting menarche in girls in Isparta  [cached]
Bumin Dündar,Hülya An?l,P?nar Akyol,Erdal Eren
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2008,
Abstract: Aim: To determine the mean age at menarche (MAM), factors affecting menarche and menstrual cycle properties of girls living in Isparta.Material and Method: After obtaining approval from The Ethics Committee, 948 girls who had menarche and attended 7 primary and 3 high schools were included in the study. All participants were given questionnaire forms which queried the MAM of their own and their members family and menstrual cycle properties, life style, nutritional properties and socio-economical status. The Children were asked to fill out the forms with their parents. Weight and height measurements were made by using standard devices and body mass index was calculated. In addition, breast development of all subjects were evaluated according to Tanner Classification. Results: The MAM were determined as 12.6 ± 0.03 years. The MAM values of the participants were found to be significantly lower than the MAM values of the mothers and elder sisters. There was a positive correlation between the age at menarche of individuals and both their mothers and elder sisters. A negative correlation was found between the age at menarche and body mass index values of the subjects. -2 and +2 SDS values for the age at menarche were found 10.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. No menarche was observed in any individual with Tanner breast stages 1 and 2; menarche was detected in 16.8 % of the subjects with Tanner stage 3 and 50.8 % of the subjects with Tanner stage 4. The season of the menarche was winter and summer in most of the subjects. 62.1 % of the participants expressed that their menstrual cycle was irregular. The rate of the complaint of irregular menstrual cycle was significantly higher in girls having menstruation less than 3 years. Conclusions: These results show a shift to earlier ages in the MAM when the MAM values of the mothers and elder sisters are taken into consideration and indicate that the age limits for the menarche of Turkish children need to be reevaluated. (Turk Arch Ped 2008; 43: 50-4)
Comparable Ages for the Independent Origins of Electrogenesis in African and South American Weakly Electric Fishes  [PDF]
Sébastien Lavoué, Masaki Miya, Matthew E. Arnegard, John P. Sullivan, Carl D. Hopkins, Mutsumi Nishida
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036287
Abstract: One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution among vertebrates is illustrated by the independent origins of an active electric sense in South American and African weakly electric fishes, the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea, respectively. These groups independently evolved similar complex systems for object localization and communication via the generation and reception of weak electric fields. While good estimates of divergence times are critical to understanding the temporal context for the evolution and diversification of these two groups, their respective ages have been difficult to estimate due to the absence of an informative fossil record, use of strict molecular clock models in previous studies, and/or incomplete taxonomic sampling. Here, we examine the timing of the origins of the Gymnotiformes and the Mormyroidea using complete mitogenome sequences and a parametric Bayesian method for divergence time reconstruction. Under two different fossil-based calibration methods, we estimated similar ages for the independent origins of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes. Our absolute estimates for the origins of these groups either slightly postdate, or just predate, the final separation of Africa and South America by continental drift. The most recent common ancestor of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes was found to be a non-electrogenic basal teleost living more than 85 millions years earlier. For both electric fish lineages, we also estimated similar intervals (16–19 or 22–26 million years, depending on calibration method) between the appearance of electroreception and the origin of myogenic electric organs, providing rough upper estimates for the time periods during which these complex electric organs evolved de novo from skeletal muscle precursors. The fact that the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea are of similar age enhances the comparative value of the weakly electric fish system for investigating pathways to evolutionary novelty, as well as the influences of key innovations in communication on the process of species radiation.
Determinants of menarche
Olga Karapanou, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-115
Abstract: The landmarks of the pubertal events in girls are the onset of puberty, peak height velocity (PHV) and menarche. The onset of puberty is marked by the development of breast tissue, while PHV is the highest velocity that is observed during the pubertal growth spurt.Menarche is a rather late event in puberty and usually occurs 6 months after PHV is achieved. The age that menarche occurs varies and is dependent on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors.In the 19th century factors that were thought to exert an influence on the physical maturation of girls were climate (particularly the mean annual temperature), ethnic origin, social status, urban or rural residence, physical activity, education, sexual stimulation, housing, inheritance, and health status [1]. Studies carried out in the 20th century documented other factors associated with the age at menarche, e.g. season and month at birth, physique, position at the sibship, family income, occupation and education of parents and family size [1].It is considered that during the 20th century the dramatic improvement of socioeconomic conditions and general health of the populations in the industrialized countries resulted in an earlier onset of puberty in children. The most reliable marker of the positive secular changes in pubertal development was the fall of the age at menarche. It has been estimated that during most of the 20th century age at menarche has been falling by about 3 months per decade [2], although there are reports from industrialized countries that it has been leveling off or that it shows an upward trend [3,4].Whatever the factors that influence pubertal maturation and age at menarche are, they interrelate and thus the onset of menarche cannot be attributed to a single factor.Aim of this report is to review the neuroendocrinology of pubertal onset and the factors, genetic and environmental, that influence menarcheal age, and also the implications of early or late menarcheal age on a you
Menopause among Yemen Women  [PDF]
Fawzia AbdulHalim, Amat Alkhlig Mehras, Ali Assabri, Mohamed Alkobaty, Saba’a Alawadi, Ammar Albourhi
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2018.74006
Abstract: Introduction: Age at menopause, influencing factors associated, symptoms related and protective health behavior vary among populations. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to estimate the age at menopause, identify associated factors, assess the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and relate protective health behavior among Yemeni women. Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 women naturally menopause aged 40 - 60 recruited from women community Centres in Sana’a city. Results: The mean age at menopause was found to be 47.8 ± 1.2 years. Significant influencing factors were genetic, biological, physical characteristics, weight, height, BMI, and physiological characteristic, such as menarche age, reproductive history, parity and abortion. Socioeconomic status had no significant influence. Most prevalent menopausal symptoms were hot flushes and sleep problems. The great majority of the women did not practice any special protective health behavior. Conclusion: Further studies on menopause phenomena are needed. Protective health behavior education efforts are made to increase women knowledge about menopause and promote menopausal women quality of life.
Lannywati Ghani
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Menopause, especially the symptoms and complications, is always an interesting topic to be discussed. It is actually a normal part of woman's life entering ages of 50. The symptoms of menopause are highly individual to each woman. Some may experience multiple physical and psychological symptoms that may continue to social impacts. Misinterpretation as other disease symptoms could happen and lead to incorrect treatment. Many studies have been done to learn more about the menopause physiological process, symptoms, complication, and treatment. So many preventive and treatment options are offered, including hormone therapy and practicing healthy life style. By understanding the menopause, it is expected that symptoms could be controlled and complications could be avoided. Key words : Woman, Menstrual Period, Menopause, Healthy
Genome-wide estimation of firing efficiencies of origins of DNA replication from time-course copy number variation data
Huaien Luo, Juntao Li, Majid Eshaghi, Jianhua Liu, R Krishna Karuturi
BMC Bioinformatics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-247
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a probabilistic model - Spanned Firing Time Model (SFTM) to characterize DNA replication process. The proposed model reflects current understandings about DNA replication. Origins in an individual cell may initiate replication randomly within a time window, but the population average exhibits a temporal program with some origins replicated early and the others late. By estimating DNA origin firing time and fork moving velocity from genome-wide time-course S-phase copy number variation data, we could estimate firing efficiency of all origins. The estimated firing efficiency is correlated well with the previous studies in fission and budding yeasts.The new probabilistic model enables sensitive identification of origins as well as genome-wide estimation of origin firing efficiency. We have successfully estimated firing efficiencies of all origins in S.cerevisiae, S.pombe and human chromosomes 21 and 22.DNA replication is a well-organized process confined to the S phase of cell division cycle. It is initiated at a number of loci called replication origins. During G1 phase, pre-replication complex (pre-RC) is formed at replication origins with the binding of origin-recognition complex (ORC) and initiation factors [1]. In the S phase, DNA replication can be activated from these sites with assistance of protein kinases CDK and DDK. DNA replication origins of different eukaryotes may have different properties. In budding yeast, ORC binds to the 11-bp conserved Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARS) to initiate the DNA synthesis [2]. In other eukaryotes, consensus sequence is not found and the mechanisms of regulating the function of origins may be determined by other components embedded in the complex genome. An example is fission yeast, which lacks conserved consensus sequence for ORC binding and replication origins are found at A+T rich islands [3]. Current understanding of DNA replication process suggests that DNA replication in each cell is s
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