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An Epidemiological Situation of an Animal Brucellosis in Mongolia
S. Nyamdorj,V. Batbaatar,J. Erdenebaatar,Yang Zheng Qi
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., infects domestic and wild animals worldwide, as well as humans who have contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy products. In present-day epidemiological situation in Mongolia is not quiet, especially, zoonoses such us brucellosis have been broadly spreaded.Recently, we developed agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with polysaccharide (Poly-B) antigen and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) using soluble antigen extracted from B. abortus 544 by n-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosine extracts) and these tests could be used to differentiate naturally infected animals from vaccinated and Y. enterocolitica O9-infected ones; this assay simply and specifically diagnoses brucellosis. To validate the method in the field and to test the effectiveness of the vaccination program in Mongolia, a serological survey of brucellosis in nomadic animal husbandry in Mongolia was performed in 2010 and 2011. In this study had been determined an animal brucellosis prevalence in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag. The result showed that 1.25% and 0.4% of cattle and 0.04 % and 0.01% of small ruminants were positive for brucellosis in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag respectively.These results showed that B.abortus 159 N5R can be used as an alternative vaccine against bovine brucellosis.
Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective
Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus) are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.
Brucellosis as an Emerging Threat in Developing Economies: Lessons from Nigeria  [PDF]
Marie J. Ducrotoy,Wilson J. Bertu,Reuben A. Ocholi,Amahyel M. Gusi,Ward Bryssinckx,Sue Welburn,Ignacio Moriyón
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003008
Abstract: Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.
Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Q Fever in Linked Human and Animal Populations in Northern Togo  [PDF]
Anna S. Dean, Bassirou Bonfoh, Abalo E. Kulo, G. Aboudou Boukaya, Moussa Amidou, Jan Hattendorf, Paola Pilo, Esther Schelling
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071501
Abstract: Background Although brucellosis (Brucella spp.) and Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) are zoonoses of global importance, very little high quality data are available from West Africa. Methods/Principal Findings A serosurvey was conducted in Togo’s main livestock-raising zone in 2011 in 25 randomly selected villages, including 683 people, 596 cattle, 465 sheep and 221 goats. Additionally, 464 transhumant cattle from Burkina Faso were sampled in 2012. The serological analyses performed were the Rose Bengal Test and ELISA for brucellosis and ELISA and the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for Q Fever Brucellosis did not appear to pose a major human health problem in the study zone, with only 7 seropositive participants. B. abortus was isolated from 3 bovine hygroma samples, and is likely to be the predominant circulating strain. This may explain the observed seropositivity amongst village cattle (9.2%, 95%CI:4.3–18.6%) and transhumant cattle (7.3%, 95%CI:3.5–14.7%), with an absence of seropositive small ruminants. Exposure of livestock and people to C. burnetii was common, potentially influenced by cultural factors. People of Fulani ethnicity had greater livestock contact and a significantly higher seroprevalence than other ethnic groups (Fulani: 45.5%, 95%CI:37.7–53.6%; non-Fulani: 27.1%, 95%CI:20.6–34.7%). Appropriate diagnostic test cut-off values in endemic settings requires further investigation. Both brucellosis and Q Fever appeared to impact on livestock production. Seropositive cows were more likely to have aborted a foetus during the previous year than seronegative cows, when adjusted for age. This odds was 3.8 times higher (95%CI: 1.2–12.1) for brucellosis and 6.7 times higher (95%CI: 1.3–34.8) for Q Fever. Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study of zoonoses in Togo in linked human and animal populations, providing much needed data for West Africa. Exposure to Brucella and C. burnetii is common but further research is needed into the clinical and economic impact.
A Network Control Theory Approach to Modeling and Optimal Control of Zoonoses: Case Study of Brucellosis Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Sandip Roy ,Terry F. McElwain,Yan Wan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001259
Abstract: Background Developing control policies for zoonotic diseases is challenging, both because of the complex spread dynamics exhibited by these diseases, and because of the need for implementing complex multi-species surveillance and control efforts using limited resources. Mathematical models, and in particular network models, of disease spread are promising as tools for control-policy design, because they can provide comprehensive quantitative representations of disease transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings A layered dynamical network model for the transmission and control of zoonotic diseases is introduced as a tool for analyzing disease spread and designing cost-effective surveillance and control. The model development is achieved using brucellosis transmission among wildlife, cattle herds, and human sub-populations in an agricultural system as a case study. Precisely, a model that tracks infection counts in interacting animal herds of multiple species (e.g., cattle herds and groups of wildlife for brucellosis) and in human subpopulations is introduced. The model is then abstracted to a form that permits comprehensive targeted design of multiple control capabilities as well as model identification from data. Next, techniques are developed for such quantitative design of control policies (that are directed to both the animal and human populations), and for model identification from snapshot and time-course data, by drawing on recent results in the network control community. Conclusions/Significance The modeling approach is shown to provide quantitative insight into comprehensive control policies for zoonotic diseases, and in turn to permit policy design for mitigation of these diseases. For the brucellosis-transmission example in particular, numerous insights are obtained regarding the optimal distribution of resources among available control capabilities (e.g., vaccination, surveillance and culling, pasteurization of milk) and points in the spread network (e.g., transhumance vs. sedentary herds). In addition, a preliminary identification of the network model for brucellosis is achieved using historical data, and the robustness of the obtained model is demonstrated. As a whole, our results indicate that network modeling can aid in designing control policies for zoonotic diseases.
Seroprevalencia de la Brucelosis en Peque os Rumiantes. Municipio Torres. A o 2008 (Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants. Municipality Torres. Year 2008)  [PDF]
Javitt J., Milva,Páez, Z., Duran,Meléndez, I.
REDVET , 2009,
Abstract: ResumenLa finalidad del presente estudio epidemiológico fue estimar laprevalencia de Brucelosis en peque os rumiantes criados bajo unsistema extensivo, en las parroquias del Municipio Torres. EstadoLara durante el a o 2008. Se trabajó con 7628 muestras en total, las6.846 muestras caprinas y las 782 muestras ovinas que fueronremitidas por los médicos veterinarios de ejercicio libre al Laboratorio Regional de Diagnóstico Zoosanitario del Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA) Lara ubicado en Carora, durante el a o 2008, sin ninguna historia de vacunación. Todas las muestras fueron examinadas para la detección de anticuerpos a Brucella usando un antígeno de B. abortus cepa 1119-3, en pruebas de aglutinación (placa, tubo, 2-Mercaptoetanol). Del total de muestras procesadas resultaron con títulos positivos 182 caprinos (2,69%) y 17 ovinos (2,17%); y 796 caprinos (11,63%) y 84 ovinos (10,74%)presentaron reacciones dudosas; dando una prevalencia en estegrupo de animales, de 0,027 para caprinos y de 0,022 para ovinos.SummaryThe aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalenceof brucellosis in small ruminants reared under an extensive system inthe parishes of the municipality of Torres, Lara State, during 2008. In total, 7628 sera samples were analyzed, 6846 and 782 samples fromgoats and sheep, respectively were taken for free exerciseveterinarians and transported to Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory at Regional Autonomous Agricultural Health Service (SASA), Laralocated in Carora, during 2008. The sampled animals have no historyof vaccination. All samples were examined to detect Brucellaantibodies using an antigen of B. abortus strain 1119-3, inagglutination tests (plate, tube, 2 - mercaptoethanol). Out of 6846processed goat samples, 182 showed positive titles (2.69%) and796goats (11.63%) were suspected. Out of 782, 17 sera sheep shownpositive titles (2.17%) and 84 sheep (10.74%) had doubtfulreactions. The prevalence obtained in this group of animals was of0,027% and 0,022% for goats and sheep, respectively.
A Review on Ruminant and Human Brucellosis in Somalia  [PDF]
Ahmed Abdulkadir Hassan-Kadle
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.56018
Abstract: This review article aims to describe the prevalence of brucellosis in ruminants and humans in Somalia and also guides policy makers to draw sound decisions regarding brucellosis control policies. It is concluded that brucellosis is of no public health importance in Somalia. Nevertheless, it is suggested that a stronger inter-sectoral collaboration among veterinary, medical and public health professionals at the federal and country level in terms of one-health approach should be promoted.
Zoonosis Zoonoses
Jeannette Dabanch P
Revista chilena de infectología , 2003,
Abstract: Ecological, climatic and sociocultural changes, have enhanced the number of known zoonoses being over 200 at the present. Transmission of infectious agents from animals to man occurs by direct contact with the animal, o by ingestion, inhalation or inoculation of infectious agent. In the Región Metropolitana 71 percent of houses with children have pets, mainly dogs, and 58 percent of immunosupressed children have pets too. Dog bites can transmit Capnocytophaga sp and Pasteurella sp that colonize their mouse. Cat transmits Bartonella henselae, being the seroprevalence of B. henselae in cats studied in Santiago 86 percent. Toxocara spp are highly prevalent parasites but unnoticed pathogens in our country, in 84,9 percent of ground samples obtained from public squares of the Metropolitan area Toxocara eggs were detected. Toxoplasma gondii, a scarcely symptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts but highly symptomatic in immunocompromised patients, has a seroprevalence of 25 to 40 percent in Chile. Trichinosis is a sporadic disease, in pigs slaughtered in the Metropolitan area, Trichinella spiralis prevalence is 0,04 percent. Tinea and Salmonelosis are other frequent zoonoses in infancy, their mean epidemiological features and clinical manifestations are presented. Leptospirosis causes sporadic outbreaks in rural zones. To reduce the frequency of zoonoses, the education of pets owners with respect to their animal health, to stimulate a periodic veterinary control, to vaccinate pets on time as reinforcement of sanitary control of meals of animal origin is recommended
The Negele-Vautherin density matrix expansion applied to the Gogny force  [PDF]
J. Dobaczewski,B. G. Carlsson,M. Kortelainen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/37/7/075106
Abstract: We use the Negele-Vautherin density matrix expansion to derive a quasi-local density functional for the description of systems of fermions interacting with short-ranged interactions composed of arbitrary finite-range central, spin-orbit, and tensor components. Terms that are absent in the original Negele-Vautherin approach owing to the angle averaging of the density matrix are fixed by employing a gauge invariance condition. We obtain the Kohn-Sham interaction energies in all spin-isospin channels, including the exchange terms, expressed as functions of the local densities and their derivatives up to second (next to leading) order. We illustrate the method by determining the coupling constants of the Skyrme functional or Skyrme force that correspond to the finite-range Gogny central force. The resulting self-consistent solutions reproduce the Gogny-force binding energies and radii within the precision of 1-2%.
Zoonoses as occupational diseases
Giorgio Battelli
Veterinaria Italiana , 2008,
Abstract: Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region), the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.
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