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Toxicity Effects of Bisphenol A on Growth and Development of Rana chensinensis Tadpoles
双酚A对中国林蛙蝌蚪生长发育的毒性效应

NIU Hai-gang,WANG Hong-yuan,ZHANG Yu-hui,
牛海岗
,王宏元,张育辉

生态毒理学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 为评价双酚A(BPA)对中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)蝌蚪的急性毒性,将26期的蝌蚪暴露于浓度为2.4×10-5 mol·L-1~4.2×10-5mol·L-1 BPA的水体中进行急性毒性实验. 结果表明,24、48、72、96h蝌蚪的死亡几率(y)与浓度对数(x)的回归方程分别为y=16.915x-4.1157、y=22.11x-6.1905、y=20.766x-5.3871、y=20.715x-5.351;半数致死浓度(LC50)分别为3.47×10-5、3.28×10-5、3.20×10-5、3.16×10-5mol·L-1. 安全浓度(SC)为0.88×10-5mol·L-1. 为探讨在安全浓度以下BPA对中国林蛙蝌蚪生长发育的影响,将林蛙蝌蚪分别于10-5、10-6、10-7 mol·L-1 BPA的水体中连续暴露直至完全变态,并设10-8、10-9mol·L-1雌二醇(E2)的阳性对照和空白对照,分别测定并统计蝌蚪发育所需的发育时间、体长和体质量. 结果表明,蝌蚪对10-5、10-6、10-7 mol·L-1 BPA与10-8、10-9mol·L-1 E2的效应相似,可延缓林蛙幼体的发育时间,导致体长和体质量降低. 推测低浓度BPA抑制蝌蚪生长发育的机制之一是干扰了正常的内分泌活动.
A skeletochronological estimate of age in a population of the Siberian Wood Frog, Rana amurensis, from northeastern China  [cached]
Wen Bo Liao
Acta Herpetologica , 2011,
Abstract: I used skeletochronology to estimate age structure of the Siberian Wood Frog, Rana amurensis, from northeastern China. Average age did not differ significantly between males and females. Age at sexual maturity in both males and females was 1 year. For both sexes the maximum age observed was 4 years. Average body size differed significantly between the sexes, with males being larger than females. A significantly and positively correlation between body size and age was found within each sex in the population. When the effect of age was controlled, males also had larger size than females, suggesting that sexual selection for larger males might improve male mating success.
A STUDY ON THE ISOENZYME DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF Rana chensinensis
中国林蛙早期胚胎发育过程同工酶的研究

Han Yali,
韩雅莉
,谭竹钧

动物学研究 , 1993,
Abstract: This paper reports the analysis of lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) and Esterase isoenzyme (EST) during Embryonic development of Rana chensinensis and optical density scanning. The results show that there are different type LDH isoenzymes in each stages, LDH, keeps higher activity during whole developing process, and the relative activities of LDH2, LDH3 and LDH5 are lower. The relative activities of LDH4 gradually increases from Tail bud stage. In addition, LDHP LDH3, LDH4 subbands specificity in the embryonic development has been discovered. The EST are observed from Mouth open stage. It is clear these ontogenetic changes are reflected the action of the differential genes (Ldh-A & Ldh-B) .
Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Testis Spermatogenic Injury Induced by Bisphenol A in Mice  [PDF]
Caili Zhang,Anzhong Wang,Xiaona Sun,Xiaocai Li,Xinghua Zhao,Shuang Li,Aituan Ma
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/690808
Abstract: To observe the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on testis spermatogenic injuries induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) in mice. BPA was subcutaneously injected into mice at a dose of 20?mg/kg body weight (BW) for 7 consecutive days. LBP was administered simultaneously with BPA by gavage daily at the dose of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg BW for 7 days. After treatment, the weight and the histopathology changes of testis and epididymis were examined; the contents of T, LH, GnRH, antioxidant enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were detected; proapoptotic protein Bax and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were also detected by immunohistochemical method. Results showed that the weights of testis and epididymis were all increased after supplement with different dosages of LBP compared with BPA group, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly increased in LBP groups, while MDA contents were gradually decreased. Moreover, the levels of T, LH, and GnRH were significantly elevated in serum treated with 100?mg/kg LBP. LBP also shows significant positive effects on the expression of Bcl-2/Bax in BPA treated mice. It is concluded that LBP may be one of the potential ingredients protecting the adult male animals from BPA induced reproductive damage. 1. Introduction There is a growing concern about the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances involved in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control [1–3]. The well-documented issue of EDCs is related to xenoestrogens, antiestrogens, antiandrogens, disruption of thyroid function, and disruption of corticoid function, and other metabolic effects [4, 5]. EDCs can result in numerous adverse consequences in estrogen-targeted tissues, some of which may not be apparent until later in life. In addition to obesity and diabetes, reproductive damage has joined the list of adverse effects that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals [6, 7]. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer for producing plastics, like polycarbonates and epoxy resins; in addition, it is widely used in adhesives, flame retardants and dental composite fillings. Because of its wide spread applications, the potential hazard for human exposure has got a great awareness [8]. A study showed that the weights and coefficients of testis in BPA treated rats significantly decreased compared to the control.
Correlation Between the Changes of Microstructure and Testosterone in Nuptial Pad of the Frog, Rana chensinensis
中国林蛙婚垫的显微结构变化及其与睾酮的关系

YANG Chun,ZHANG Yu-hui,CUI Hui-ting,
杨纯
,张育辉,崔慧婷

动物学研究 , 2005,
Abstract: The nuptial pad microstructures of Rana chensinensis in the Qinling Mountain China were observed by light microscopy during the annual reproductive cycle; meanwhile, testosterone (T) and androgen receptor (AR) localization were examined by immunocytochemistry in the nuptial pad. The results indicated that the formation of nuptial spines was caused by multiplication of germinal cells, granular cells, and volume expansion of granular cells. The regression of nuptial spines was caused by desquamation of granular cell globules, which wrapped by a layer of horny cells and detaching from epidermis surface. The development of nuptial glands synchronized with nuptial spines morphogenesis. Secretory activity of the nuptial glands was active during courtship. The distribution of T and AR in germinal cells, granular cells and nuptial glands showed a good agreement with aspection of microstructures in nuptial pad. These indicated that the formation and regression of nuptial pad were regulated by T. Seasonal variation in the development of nuptial pad were associated with testis somatic index and spermatogenesis progress. It suggested that pad morphological characters reflected indirectly the development condition of testis.
Cloning of cDNAs encoding skin antimicrobial peptide precursors from Chinese brown frogs, Rana chensinensis and determination of antimicrobial, anticancer and haemolysis activity
中国林蛙皮肤抗菌肽基因的cDNA克隆及抗菌、抗癌和溶血活性的测定

Fenghui Yu,Lifang Zhang,Junfeng Li,Xiaofan Li,Xin Fu,Dejing Shang,
虞凤慧
,张丽芳,李俊峰,李晓帆,付欣,尚德静

生物工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Amphibian skin antimicrobial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium and cytotoxic activity responsible for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells.In this present study,six cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptide precursors were cloned from the skin of Chinese brown frog,Rana chensinensis by RT-PCR and 3'-RACE procedure and identified as preprotemporin-1CEa,preprotemporin-1CEb,preprotemporin-1CEc,preprobrevinin-1CEa,preprobrevinin-1CEb,and pr...
Development of Sexual Gland and Influence of Temperature on Sexual Differentiation in Rana chensinensis
中国林蛙性腺的发育及温度对其性别分化的影响

LI Xin,Hong,ZHAO Wen,Ge,
李新红
,郭玉民

动物学研究 , 2001,
Abstract: 为探讨幼蛙性别分化与温度的关系,在恒温和变温条件下培养中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)受精卵至变态完成,结果表明:(1)胚胎发育到24期时生殖嵴开始出现,25期个别原始生殖细胞(PGCs)已迁移到生殖嵴中,生殖细胞与生殖嵴共同发育成生殖腺;(2)胚胎发育到31期生殖腺出现性别分化,卵巢分化初期较易识别,而精巢分化不明显;…(3)卵巢分化完成于37期,精巢分化完成于变态之后,两侧生殖腺等大;(4)胚胎发育从30期开始,性别分化对温度较为敏感,低温利于雌性化,高温利于雄性化;(5)15-25℃为变温培养时性比发生变化的敏感温度区,缓慢升温雄性比较显著增加,缓慢降温雌性比例显著增加。
Toward understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high-elevation life in poikilothermic species: A comparative transcriptomic analysis of two ranid frogs, Rana chensinensis and R. kukunoris  [cached]
Yang Weizhao,Qi Yin,Bi Ke,Fu Jinzhong
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-588
Abstract: Background Understanding how organisms adapt to high-elevation environments at a genome scale provides novel insights into the process of adaptive evolution. Previous studies have mainly focused on endothermic organisms, while poikilothermic species may have evolved different mechanisms to cope with high-elevation environments. In this context, we sequenced transcriptomes of a pair of closely related anuran species, Rana chensinensis and R. kukunoris, which inhabit respective low- and high-elevation habitats. By comparing the two transcriptomes, we identified candidate genes that may be involved in high-elevation adaption in poikilothermic species. Results Over 66 million sequence reads from each transcriptome were generated. A total of 41,858 and 39,293 transcripts for each species were obtained by de novo assembly. By comparing the orthologous transcripts, we identified 125 protein-coding genes that have likely experienced strong positive selection (Ka/Ks>1). In addition, 335 genes that may bear a signature of positive selection (1≥Ka/Ks>0.5) were also recognized. By considering their functions, fourteen candidate genes were determined to be likely involved in high-elevation adaptation, including two CYP genes, USP-1, and several others. Conclusions We identified a set of candidate genes that may have promoted adaptation of R. kukunoris to its high-elevation environment. These include several genes that have previously been associated with oxygen binding, response to UV radiation, and repair of free radical injury. Detailed molecular, physiological, and phenotypic studies are required to better understand the roles of these genes in improving the performance of R. kukunoris in a high-elevation environment. We have evidence for both convergent and divergent evolution between endothermic and poikilothemic species, but additional research across a wide range of organisms will be necessary to comprehend the complexity of high-elevation adaptation.
Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China
Aibin Zhan, Cheng Li, Jinzhong Fu
BMC Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-10-17
Abstract: Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains.The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the diminishing barrier effect of mountain ridges. Additionally, a significant decrease in genetic diversity in the peripheral populations supports Mayr's central-peripheral population hypothesis.Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric with strict habitat specificity and physiological requirements [1,2]. Pond breeding amphibians are particularly so because they need specific, sometimes distinct, habitats for breeding and larval development [3,4]. Consequently, significant population genetic structure is expected, especially over moderately large geographic distances or when landscapes are fragmented [4]; this expectation has been supported by numerous phyloge
辛基酚对中国林蛙蝌蚪生长发育的毒性效应(Toxicity Effects of Octylphenol on Growth and Development of Tadpoles(Rana chensinensis))
洪燕燕,张育辉
生态毒理学报 , 2010,
Abstract: 为评价辛基酚(OP)对中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)蝌蚪的急性毒性,将26期蝌蚪暴露在浓度为5.0×10-7~5.0×10-6mol·L-1 OP的水体中进行急性毒性实验. 结果显示,蝌蚪的死亡率随着OP浓度的升高和暴露时间的延长而增加,24、48、72、96h的半数致死浓度(LC50)分别为3.55×10-6、2.96×10-6、1.90×10-6、1.52×10-6mol·L-1;96h零致死浓度(96hLC0)为9.70×10-7mol·L-1;安全浓度(SC)为1.52×10-7mol·L-1. 另外,为探讨SC以下OP对蝌蚪生长发育的影响,将26期蝌蚪连续暴露在1.0×10-7、5.0×10-8、1.0×10-8、1.0×10-9mol·L-1 OP的水体中,并设1.0×10-7、1.0×10-8 mol·L-1雌二醇(E2)阳性对照及空白对照,直至70%蝌蚪完全变态. 在暴露20d、40d和70%蝌蚪完全变态时共3次测量蝌蚪及幼蛙的体长和体重,分别统计70%蝌蚪发育至跗蹠部伸长期、前肢伸出期和完全变态期所需的时间. 结果表明,SC以下OP和E2对蝌蚪死亡率的影响不明显,但1.0×10-9~1.0×10-7mol·L-1 OP和1.0×10-7、1.0×10-8mol·L-1 E2可不同程度地延缓蝌蚪发育时间,降低蝌蚪体长和体重,并导致少数蝌蚪发育畸形. 结果说明低浓度OP与E2相似,对蝌蚪生长发育具有抑制作用.
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