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A genre-based study of biomedical editorials and letters to the editor: a contrastive analysis
Esther Vázquez y del árbol
Ibérica , 2005,
Abstract: This paper reports on a genre-based contrastive analysis of the textual organization of biomedical texts. In order to provide the maximum educational value to our research, our corpus is made up of 100 biomedical texts divided as follows: 25 Letters to the Editor, 25 Cartas al director, 25 Editorials and 25 Editoriales. Following Paltridge's approach, based on simple keys to symbolize the main parts of discourse in the environmental area, we developed a similar analysis to work with the rhetorical structure of the texts of another area, i.e. Medicine. After studying the informational structure of the texts and analyzing the results, we found striking differences when comparing the discourse organization in texts of various sub-genres. This shows that each genre has unique linguistic patterns which are not shared with the rest.
Formes de séquentialité dans les courriels et les forums de discussion. Une approche conversationnelle de l’interaction sur Internet. Forms of sequentiality in e-mails and newsgroup discussions : a conversational approach of Internet communication.  [PDF]
Lorenza Mondada
ALSIC : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication , 1999, DOI: 10.4000/alsic.1571
Abstract: La communication médiatisée par ordinateur (CMO) (computer-mediated communication) fait l’objet, depuis quelques années, d’études empiriques détaillées de la part de linguistes: celles-ci se révèlent indispensables pour déconstruire les nombreux mythes qui s’accumulent sur la communication dans le cyberespace - concernant aussi bien le lien social, l’espace public, l’organisation du travail, les projets didactiques - et pour problématiser les outils conceptuels permettant d’en rendre compte. Dans ce cadre, nous nous penchons dans cet article sur un phénomène particulier: la pratique récurrente, dans les messages envoyés par courriel, dans les listes ou dans les forums de discussion, qui consiste à reprendre le message de l’autre pour y répondre, le commenter, l’évaluer, le compléter. Par cette fa on de traiter le discours de l’autre, l’énonciateur introduit une interactivité dans son message et il la met en scène: il rend ainsi manifestes ses activités de production et d’interprétation; il construit un espace d’intersubjectivité qui pourra être modifié par les locuteurs successifs. Les modalités de ces encha nements séquentiels entre messages seront ici analysées dans la perspective de l’Analyse Conversationnelle d’inspiration ethnométhodologique, qui permet d’approfondir la dimension séquentielle et interactionnelle des échanges sur Internet et contribuer ainsi, de fa on empirique, aux débats plus généraux sur la cybersociabilité, l’émergence de communautés virtuelles et les nouvelles formes de communication. Cybercommunication and related phenomena have raised considerable discussions in the literature, often related to optimistic and pessimist mythical projections in the domains of democracy, participation in public space, sociability, work, and education. A more empirical approach, based on the detailed analysis of linguistic and interactional patterns, is needed in order to give another perspective on these new media and in order to question the conceptual tools indispensable for understanding them. In this framework, this article proposes a conversational approach of Internet communication in e-mails and discussion lists. It focuses on a particular phenomena : the practice of quoting the previous message in an answering message, where the quote is evaluated, completed, commented on, answered to. This practice introduces a particular kind of interactivity in the message. The analysis deals with various aspects of this practice, as the ways in which the second message can segment the first, the types of adjacent pairs which can be found in this chai
Conversational Sensing  [PDF]
Alun Preece,Chris Gwilliams,Christos Parizas,Diego Pizzocaro,Jonathan Z. Bakdash,Dave Braines
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1117/12.2053283
Abstract: Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it possible to represent information fusion and situational awareness as a conversational process among actors - human and machine agents - at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of security, policing and emergency response, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled natural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a flow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both trained and untrained sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by management and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.
Rationality, Cooperation and Conversational Implicature  [PDF]
Mark Lee
Computer Science , 1998,
Abstract: Conversational implicatures are usually described as being licensed by the disobeying or flouting of a Principle of Cooperation. However, the specification of this principle has proved computationally elusive. In this paper we suggest that a more useful concept is rationality. Such a concept can be specified explicitely in planning terms and we argue that speakers perform utterances as part of the optimal plan for their particular communicative goals. Such an assumption can be used by the hearer to infer conversational implicatures implicit in the speaker's utterance.
Trends in Combating Image Spam E-mails  [PDF]
Mohammadi Akheela Khanum,Lamia Mohammed Ketari
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: With the rapid adoption of Internet as an easy way to communicate, the amount of unsolicited e-mails, known as spam e-mails, has been growing rapidly. The major problem of spam e-mails is the loss of productivity and a drain on IT resources. Today, we receive spam more rapidly than the legitimate e-mails. Initially, spam e-mails contained only textual messages which were easily detected by the text-based spam filters. To evade such detection, spammers came up with a new sophisticated technique called image spam. Image spam consists in embedding the advertisement text in images rather than in the body of the e-mail, yet the image contents are not detected by most spam filters. In this paper, we examine the motivations and the challenges in image spam filtering research, and we review the recent trends in combating image spam e-mails. The review indicates that spamming is a business model and spammers are becoming more sophisticated in their approach to adapt to all challenges, and hence, defeating the conventional spam filtering technologies. Therefore, image spam detection techniques should be scalable and adaptable to meet the future tactics of the spammers.
VAN GOGH′S LETTERS AS BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SOURCE: A CASE STUDY  [PDF]
Denise de Paula Veras Aquino
Brazilian Journal of Information Science , 2011,
Abstract: Van Gogh used widely letters as communication medium. However, in spite of their contents value, the letters are not usually considered in social researches. Considering the personal mails importance as research sources in the information current context, we aim to analyze Van Gogh′s letters to his brother Théo, from 1888 to 1890 as biographical information source. For this analysis, we used the letters 534; 557; 558; 565; 566; 567; 568; 573; 576 as research sources (they were used as samples). Van Gogh′s personal letters to Théo are analyzed and presented as biographical information medium spread. As a methodology, we use the matter study to research the issue. The conclusion of the analysis allows us to notice that personal letters clarify Van Gogh′s life important events and circumstances that may be used in researches as biographical information source.
Making a contrastive dictionary: Practical problems
Sternin I.A.
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0662232s
Abstract: It is argued that that componential analyses is at the basis of contrastive lexicography and makes possible 3 different types of contrastive dictionaries. Some contrastive dictionary is the basic type of dictionary for contrastive lexicography.
Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity  [PDF]
Namkje Koudenburg, Tom Postmes, Ernestine H. Gordijn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078363
Abstract: Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.
A Neural Conversational Model  [PDF]
Oriol Vinyals,Quoc Le
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Conversational modeling is an important task in natural language understanding and machine intelligence. Although previous approaches exist, they are often restricted to specific domains (e.g., booking an airline ticket) and require hand-crafted rules. In this paper, we present a simple approach for this task which uses the recently proposed sequence to sequence framework. Our model converses by predicting the next sentence given the previous sentence or sentences in a conversation. The strength of our model is that it can be trained end-to-end and thus requires much fewer hand-crafted rules. We find that this straightforward model can generate simple conversations given a large conversational training dataset. Our preliminary results suggest that, despite optimizing the wrong objective function, the model is able to converse well. It is able extract knowledge from both a domain specific dataset, and from a large, noisy, and general domain dataset of movie subtitles. On a domain-specific IT helpdesk dataset, the model can find a solution to a technical problem via conversations. On a noisy open-domain movie transcript dataset, the model can perform simple forms of common sense reasoning. As expected, we also find that the lack of consistency is a common failure mode of our model.
Conversational Implicature in English Listening Comprehension
Haiyan Wang
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.5.1162-1167
Abstract: Some English learners find it hard to understand a sentence when they are given a piece of listening material although they have a good master of vocabulary and grammatical rules. In order to improve the ability of listening comprehension, it’s necessary for English learners to introduce some basic Pragmatics theories. Grice’s Conversational Implicature Theory is one of the most important contents of Pragmatics. The theory focuses its attention on the phenomenon of conveying more than what is said. Therefore, the English listeners can and should master the theory of Grice’s Conversational Implicature, learn how to infer implicature to guide their learning and lead in such theories in listening comprehension. This thesis attempts to examin the relationship between them and state the roles played by the conversational implicature in listening comprehension.
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