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Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera Culicidae) para el estado Bolívar, Venezuela: Dos de ellos nuevos para el país
Berti,Jesús; Guzmán,Hernán; Liria,Jonathan; González,Julio; Estrada,Yarys; Pérez,Enrique;
Boletín de Malariología y Salud Ambiental , 2011,
Abstract: first report of 19 culicidae species (diptera: culicidae) from bolivar state is made, belonging to 10 genera of anophelinae and culicinae: anopheles, chagasia, culex, aedes, mansonia, coquilletidia, uranotaenia, psorophora, limatus and wyeomyia. chagasia bonneae root, 1927 and chagasia ablusa harbach, 2009 are reported for the first time in venezuela.
Aspectos ecológicos de la incidencia larval de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Tuxpan, Veracruz, México Ecological aspects of larval incidence of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico
VICENCIO DE LA CRUZ-FRANCISCO,DALIA IBETH VEDA-MORENO,ARTURO VALDéS-MURILLO
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2012,
Abstract: Se caracterizó la familia Culicidae de la región de Tuxpan, Veracruz. Para este fin se establecieron cuatro sectores: Colonia Reyes Heroles, Colonia Libertad, Infonavit Puerto Pesquero y Colonia La Mata de Tampamachoco; entre mayo a noviembre de 2009 se efectuaron tres muestreos por sector para colocar larvitrampas de manera aleatoria en domicilios y en ambientes naturales, como complemento se efectuaron muestreos focales para la recolección de organismos en recipientes con agua acumulada. Por sector se estimó la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad de Shannon, Equidad de Pielou, Dominancia de Simpson y la semejanza entre estaciones con el índice de Bray-Curtis. Considerando las cuatro localidades, se capturaron 5.645 larvas de culícidos, identificándose cinco géneros y 14 especies. En orden de importancia las especies más abundantes del estudio fueron: Aedes aegypti con 2.016 especímenes, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus con 1.598 y Aedes albopictus con 1.465. Por lo localidad, el sector Puerto Pesquero mostró la mayor riqueza y abundancia de especies. La diversidad y equidad fue mayor en el sector Libertad, mientras la localidad Puerto Pesquero manifestó mayor dominancia. Las comunidades de culícidos son similares entre los sectores urbanos pero son diferentes con los sectores suburbanos, esto revela que las características físicas de los suburbios definen las comunidades de culícidos existiendo mayor diversidad y abundancia en zonas que ofrecen las condiciones necesarias para su proliferación como los espacios naturales que brindan las áreas suburbanas. Was characterized the Culicidae family of the region of Tuxpan, Veracruz. For this purpose, four sectors were established: Colonia Reyes Heroles, Colonia Libertad, Colonia Infonavit Puerto Pesquero and Colonia La Mata de Tampamachoco. From May to November 2009 three sampling were made in each sector placing larvitraps randomly in homes and in natural environments, as complement were done focal samplings for the organisms collection in recipients with cumulative water. By sector there were estimated the wealth, abundance, diversity of Shannon, Pielou equity, Simpson's dominance, and the similarity between seasons. Considering the four locations, 5,645 were captured culicids larvae, determining five genera and 14 species. In order of importance the most abundant species in this study were: Aedes aegypti with 2,016 specimens, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus with 1,598, Aedes albopictus with 1,465. Puerto Pesquero showed the highest species richness and abundance. The diversity and equity was higher in the La Libertad,
Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae), Brasil
Portes, Maria da Gra?a Teixeira;Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared;Nascimento, Jo?o Cezar do;Zeccer, Suzana;Silva, Luis Antonio;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822010000200010
Abstract: introduction: the amazon region of brazil is endemic for malaria. in the state of santa catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. however, because malaria vectors are present within brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of santa catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. methods: the following data were used: the database of the entomology group of the national health foundation, santa catarina (acces, 1997-2000); the epidemiological surveillance information system of the health surveillance department (malaria/sc); and the notifiable disease information system (sinan/sc). these data were transferred to and analyzed in the microsoft office excel 2007 software. results: collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7%) and 764 others (6.2%) were identified. three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. conclusions: given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as anopheles cruzii and anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. these species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of gaspar, indaial and rodeio.
Evolution of the Heme Peroxidases of Culicidae (Diptera)  [PDF]
Austin L. Hughes
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/146387
Abstract: Phylogenetic analysis of heme peroxidases (HPXs) of Culicidae and other insects revealed six highly conserved ancient HPX lineages, each of which originated by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Hemimetabola and Holmetabola. In addition, culicid HPX7 and HPX12 arose by gene duplication after the MRCA of Culicidae and Drosophilidae, while HPX2 orthologs were not found in any other order analyzed except Diptera. Within Diptera, HPX2, HPX7, and HPX12 were relatively poorly conserved at the amino acid level in comparison to the six ancient lineages. The genome of Anopheles gambiae included genes ecoding five proteins (HPX10, HPX11, HPX13, HXP14, and HPX15) without ortholgs in other genomes analyzed. Overall, gene expression patterns did not seem to reflect phylogenetic relationships, but genes that evolved rapidly at the amino acid sequence level tended to have divergent expression patterns as well. The uniquely high level of duplication of HPXs in A. gambiae may have played a role in coevolution with malaria parasites. 1. Introduction The production of nitric oxide (NO) is an important immune defense mechanism against cellular microorganisms in insects and other invertebrates [1]. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), encoded by a single gene in insect genomes sequenced to date [2], is the major enzyme involved in NO production, but the full pathway of NO production is only beginning to be understood. In the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) when infected by malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Plasmodium), a heme peroxidase (HPX2) and NADPH oxidase (NOX5) were found to play a crucial role in potentiating NO in antiparasite defense [3]. NOX5 is represented by a single ortholog in insects, but HPX2 is a member of a multigene heme peroxidase family in A. gambiae and other insects [3–5]. Other mosquito heme peroxidases (HPXs) of known function include those expressed in the salivary glands of female A. gambiae and A. albimanus [6, 7] and one involved in the catalysis of protein-crosslinking in the chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs [8]. In another member of Diptera, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, heme peroxidases have been implicated in chorion assembly and other developmental processes [9, 10]. For nearly 5000 orthologous genes, Waterhouse and colleagues [4] compared the amino acid sequence distance between D. melanogaster and A. gambiae with that between D. melanogaster and Ae. aegypti. On average genes with known immune function showed a greater level of amino acid sequence divergence than other genes, but certain
Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of S?o Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence
Guimar?es, Anthony érico;Gentile, Carla;Lopes, Catarina Macedo;Mello, Rubens Pinto de;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000600002
Abstract: the ecology of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) was studied in areas of the serra do mar state park, state of s?o paulo, brazil. the influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. members of the subfamily culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included culex nigripalpus, coquillettidia chrysonotum and cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included psorophora ferox and ps. albipes. others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: aedes serratus, ae. scapularis and ae. fulvus. lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.
Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of S o Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence  [cached]
Guimar?es Anthony érico,Gentile Carla,Lopes Catarina Macedo,Mello Rubens Pinto de
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: The ecology of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied in areas of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of S o Paulo, Brazil. The influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. Sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of Trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of Anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. Members of the subfamily Culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia chrysonotum and Cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included Psorophora ferox and Ps. albipes. Others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: Aedes serratus, Ae. scapularis and Ae. fulvus. Lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. Ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.
Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology
Kyanne R Reidenbach, Shelley Cook, Matthew A Bertone, Ralph E Harbach, Brian M Wiegmann, Nora J Besansky
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-298
Abstract: We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous.Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes.Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a monophyletic group of true flies [1-4], recognizable by their elongate adult mouthparts through which the females of most species feed on vertebrate blood. Mosquitoes occur throughout temperate and tropical regions, and well beyond the Arctic Circle, but are most diverse in tropical forest environments [5]. A bewildering amount of morphological diversity parallels their spectacular radiation into virtually every conceivable collection of water, ranging from a few droplets trapped by plant parts to large bodies of fresh and brackish surface water, making mosquitoes "as ubiquitous as water" [6]. The relationship between human health and those species that are medically important (<200 of 3,524 currently recognized; http://mosquito-taxonomic-inventory.info/ webcite) has driven most mosquito research. Within this small subset of disease vector species, morphological similarities between close relatives (e.g., cryptic or sibling species complexes) continue to pose practical and academic challenges to disease control, conventional taxonomy, and phylogenetic inference. Ironically, it is not the morphological similarity but rather the morphological divers
Espécies de Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae) em área endêmica de malária, Maranh o, Brasil  [cached]
Xavier Maria M dos SP,Rebêlo José MM
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1999,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Estudar a flutua o sazonal, freqüência horária, abundancia relativa e riqueza de espécies de Anopheles em ambiente antrópico, para entender a bioecologia do grupo e para a monitoriza o do programa de controle da malária. MéTODOS: Os anofelinos foram estudados durante um ano, de outubro de 1996 a setembro de 1997, das 18 às 6 horas, a cada 30 dias, no Município da Raposa, Ilha de S o Luís, Maranh o. Utilizou-se o método de captura de fêmeas em iscas humanas no intra e peridomicílio, com tubo de suc o e foco luminoso orientado. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 1.407 espécimes assim distribuídos: Anopheles aquasalis (82%), Anopheles galvaoi (10,2%) e Anopheles albitarsis (6,4%). As demais espécies, Anopheles evansae, Anopheles nuneztovari e Anopheles triannulatus davisi representaram juntas 1,4%. Os anofelinos ocorreram o ano inteiro, principalmente no período chuvoso, sendo mais freqüentes no intra (75,3%) do que no peridomicílio (24,7%), preferindo sugar sangue no crepúsculo vespertino e nas primeiras horas da noite. CONCLUS O: As varia es observadas no comportamento do anofelino mostram que as diferentes espécies vêm adaptando-se, em maior ou menor grau, ao convívio com o homem nas suas habita es.
Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae) e a malária em Buriticupu-Santa Luzia, Pré-Amaz nia maranhense
Rebêlo José Manuel Macário,Silva Antonio Rafael da,Ferreira Luiz Alves,Vieira José Augusto
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 1997,
Abstract: Neste trabalho, estudou-se as espécies do gênero Anopheles que se atraem por iscas humanas na Regi o de Buriticupu, Santa Luzia, Estado do Maranh o. Foram encontradas 7 espécies do subgênero Nyssorhyncus A. (N) darlingi, o principal vetor da malária humana na regi o, foi a espécie mais freqüente (53,1% da amostra total). Seguem na ordem de importancia, A. (N) evansae (21.0%), A. (N) triannulatus (17.4%) e A. (N) nu eztovari (4,8%). As demais espécies, A. (N) argyritarsis, A. (N) oswaldoi e A. (N) rangeli representaram juntas 3,7% da amostra total. As visitas foram mais frequentes no extra (51,7% da amostra total) do que no peridomicílio (45,7%). A. (N) darlingi e A. (N) evansae foram as únicas espécies encontradas no intradomicílio, numa propor o de aproximadamente 2,6% da amostra total. Os anofelinos ocorreram nas esta es seca e chuvosa, com maior frequência na última, coincidindo com os elevados índices de caso de malária naquela regi o.
Análisis morfológico y molecular evidencia problemas al identificar Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae) por claves dicotómicas Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrate identification problems of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae) using dichotomous keys
GIOVAN F GóMEZ,ASTRID V CIENFUEGOS,LINA A GUTIéRREZ,JAN E CONN
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2010,
Abstract: El Grupo Oswaldoi, subgénero Nyssorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), incluye 16 especies. Algunas de estas especies presentan una alta variabilidad morfológica intraespecífica y similitud interespecie; lo anterior puede ocasionar dificultad en la identificación de la hembra al usar las claves morfológicas, como ocurre con Anopheles nuneztovari, considerado vector primario de malaria en Colombia. En este trabajo se comparó la utilidad de cinco claves morfológicas para la identificación de especímenes A. nuneztovari recolectados en la localidad de Puerto Anchica, Montelibano, Córdoba, Colombia. Se analizaron tres relaciones morfométricas y se confirmó la identificación morfológica utilizando la técnica PCR-RFLP basada en secuencias ITS2. El análisis de 41 hembras usando las claves, mostró que los especímenes A. nuneztovari presentaron sobrelapamiento morfológico con otras especies del Grupo Oswaldoi, como: A. rangeli, A. oswaldoi, A. evansae y A. benarrochi. El análisis molecular confirmó que todos los especímenes corresponden a A. nuneztovari. Dado que el uso de claves morfológicas continúa siendo la estrategia de elección para la identificación de anofelinos, los resultados sugieren que en caso de especies problemáticas, es conveniente confirmar la identificación mediante herramientas moleculares desarrolladas con el respaldo de la identificación de estadios inmaduros. The Oswaldoi Group, subgenus Nyssorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), includes 16 species. Some of these species exhibit high intraspecific morphological variability and interspecific similarity; this can lead to difficulty in the identification of females by using morphological keys, as is the case with Anopheles nuneztovari, considered a primary malaria vector in Colombia. In this study we compared the usefulness of five morphological keys for the identification of A. nuneztovari specimens collected in the locality of Puerto Anchica, Montelibano, Córdoba, Colombia. Three morphometric ratios were analyzed and morphological identification results were confirmed using the PCR-RFLP technique based on ITS2 sequences. The analysis of 41 females using the keys showed that A. nuneztovari specimens presented overlap with other species of the Oswaldoi Group, such as A. rangeli, A. oswaldoi, A. evansae and A. benarrochi. Molecular analysis confirmed that all of the specimens corresponded to A. nuneztovari. Because the use of morphological keys continue to be a strategy of choice for the identification of anophelines, the results suggest that in the case of problematic species, it is convenient to confirm i
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