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Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth.) Haworth. (Cactaceae) in the Kruger National Park  [cached]
L.C. Foxcroft,J.H. Hoffmann
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2000, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v43i2.194
Abstract: Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP) have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.
Selection of Cactus Pear Forage (Opuntia spp.) and (Nopalea spp.) Genotypes resistant to the Carmine Cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae cockerell, 1929) in the State of Paraíba, Brazil
Edson Batista Lopes,Carlos Henrique de Brito,Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque,Jacinto de Luna Batista
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2010,
Abstract: Since 2001, the giant cactus pear (O. ficus-indica) has been decimated by carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell, 1929), considered a potentially devastating pest. The objective of this research was to select genotypes resistant of cactus pear to the carmine cochineal. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of Lagoa Seca Experimental Station owned by the Agricultural Research Corporation of Paraiba-EMEPA-PB, during the months of February to July 2009. We evaluated 22 genotypes of cactus pear (Opuntia spp. and Nopalea spp.). Of each genotype were selected five cladodes, standardized in relation to the physiological state (age of the cladodes). They were divided into four quadrants, where one in every five of them were applied “toothpicks” infested with the insect colonies, a total of 20 colonies/cladodes. Weekly cladodes of the infested genotypes were inspected to evaluate the growth of old colonies and the emergence of new colonies. This procedure took 60 days. The results showed that the genotypes Palma ornamental (Opuntia stricta,), X-Italiana, Palma Gigante, F5, F8, F11, V12, IPA-Clone 20, Orelha-de-on a (Opuntia sp.), Redonda, Branco S o Pedro, Formosa, Lingua-de-vaca and Gigantona are susceptible to the carmine cochineal. Already the genotypes Baiana or Alagoana, Palma Doce or Miúda Orelha-de-elefante-africana, Orelha-de-elefante-mexicana, Orelha-de-on a (Nopalea sp.) and Palma Azul are resistant to the carmine cochineal.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
Iliana Pacheco-Rueda,J. Refugio Lomelí-Flores,Esteban Rodríguez- Leyva,Manuel Ramírez- Delgado
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: El nopal verdura, Opuntia ficus-indica, es una hortaliza de importancia económica, social y ambiental en México, y una de sus plagas más importantes es la cochinilla silvestre del nopal, Dactylopius opuntiae. De sus enemigos naturales nativos el hemeróbido depredador Sympherobius barberi es una posible alternativa para su control. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la biología de S. barberi alimentado con D. opuntiae. Para establecer las crías en laboratorio tanto de la presa D. opuntiae y el depredador S. barberi, se colectaron insectos durante 2008 y 2009 de la zona productora de nopal verdura de Tlalnepantla, Morelos. S. barberi completó su ciclo biológico en 28 días. Las hembras tuvieron un periodo de preoviposición de cuatro días; el promedio de huevos por hembra por día fue de 1.98. Adicionalmente, S. barberi presentó una tasa neta de reproducción (Ro) de 36.6, una tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (rm) de 0.081, un tiempo de generación (T) de 44.27 días y una tasa finita de reproducción ( ) de 1.084.
Infestation and dispersal speed of dactylopius opuntiae cockerell on giant cactus pea, 1896 in the State Of Paraíba, Brazil  [PDF]
Edson Batista Lopes,Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque,Carlos Henrique de Brito,Jacinto de Luna Batista
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: In 2001 was introduced in the State of Paraíba, the exotic pest Dactylopius opuntiae, commonly known as carmine cochineal, which already undertaken the cultivation of the giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in more than fifty cities. This study aimed to evaluate the infestation and dispersal speed of D. opuntiae at the field conditions, to establish a level of pest control. The research was performed in a field of giant cactus pear with twelve months cropped, artificially infested with the carmine cochineal in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba. The trial used was the completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of ten treatments (giant cactus pear plants) and ten repetitions (infested cladodes). Data were submitted to analysis of variance, using the ASSISTAT Application 7.5 Beta (2008). The results showed that ten colonies/cladodes caused infestation and a high dispersion of the insect. After 60 days the infestation and spread of colonies reached average value 171 colonies per plant. The dispersal of migrants nymphs are carried by wind from the cladodes to cladodes and plant to plant. From these results we can establish that the control level to carmine cochineal is less than 10 colonies/plant and the combat should be started immediately after detection of the first colonies of the pest in cactus pear crop.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
PACHECO-RUEDA, Iliana;LOMELí-FLORES, J. Refugio;RODRíGUEZ-LEYVA, Esteban;RAMíREZ-DELGADO, Manuel;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: prickly pear opuntia ficus-indica, is consumed in mexico as young pads which are called "nopalitos". it is a horticultural crop of great economical, social, and environmental importance. one of its most important pests is the wild cochineal insect, dactylopius opuntiae. amoung natural enemies of the latter are sympherobius barberi, a predaceous brown lacewing that is considered one of the control alternatives. the objective of this research was to assess the biology of s. barberi reared on d. opuntiae. all the specimens used to establish laboratory colonies of both, pest and the predator, were collected during 2008 and 2009 from the nopalitos producing zone in tlalnepantla, morelos. s. barberi completed its life cycle in 28 days. females had a four day preovipositional period, while daily average eggs per female was 1.98. also, s. barberi had a net reproductive rate (ro) of 36.6; a daily intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of 0.081; a generation time (t) of 44.27 d, and a finite reproductive rate (λ) of 1.084.
Efectividad biológica de productos biodegradables para el control de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Celina Palacios Mendoza,Ramón Nieto Hernández,Celina Llanderal Cázares,Héctor González Hernández
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2004,
Abstract: Se evaluaron dos clases de productos biodegradables, un detergente de uso doméstico (Roma ) y otro clasificado como producto misceláneo (Peak Plus, en trámite de registro) contra ninfas I, ninfas II y hembras adultas de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) en condiciones de laboratorio, por el método de aspersión dirigida a cladodios de nopal infestados. Las concentraciones probadas para ambos productos fueron 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 6.0%; además se evaluó el efecto de una aplicación repetida de las oncentraciones comprendidas de 0.5 a 3.0% sobre las mismas etapas de desarrollo. Se observó una mayor susceptibilidad de ninfas I, teniendo una mortalidad cercana al 50% con 5% del detergente Roma , mientras que las ninfas II y hembras adultas fueron más susceptibles al Peak Plus, lográndose un control cercano al 50% con las concentraciones de 1.5 y 3.0%, respectivamente. En la aplicación repetida, el efecto mayor se observó en hembras adultas para ambos productos.
Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae)
Flores-Hernández, Arnoldo;Murillo-Amador, Bernardo;Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar;Salazar-Torres, José Cruz;García-Hernández, José Luis;Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2006,
Abstract: wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. to characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh mexico, using as a host organism opuntia megacantha salm dick. the results indicate that the wild specie is dactylopius opuntiae. the presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. the duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. the adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days). the complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. a period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 21 days with an average of 131 insects per female. the sex ratio female: male was 1:1. the reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. this is the first report of dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of north, central and norwest of mexico specifically in the bolson of mapimí, durango, mexico.
Dispersal speed of datylopius opuntiae on giant cactus pear (opuntia fícus- indica)
Edson Batista Lopes,Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque,Carlos Henrique de Brito,Jacinto de Luna Batista
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: The insect Dactylopius opuntiae (cochineal carmine) has become an important pest to giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in several counties of the micro regions of Carirí Ocidental, Serra do Teixeira and Piancó, where the attack of the insect is so intense that it obliges farmers to eradicate crops. This research aimed to quantify the dispersal speed of D. opuntiae under field conditions, as a premise for the implementation of tactics of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The experiment was carried out at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, in Lagoa Seca County, state of Paraiba. Dispersion quantification was conducted in three rows of giant cactus pear each with ten plants, the first being selected to perform the artificial infestation (initial). Three evaluations was carried out in three rows and counted the average number of colonies arising from the initial infestation. Medium comparison of was made by Tukey test at 5% probability, using the application ASSISTAT 7.5 Beta. For the aspect of dispersion within each plant, it was observed that the artificially infested cladodes began to be colonized for 8 days after infection and subsequently at 15, 21, 28, 35 and 42 and 50 days, noting that equally the first, second and third rows were also colonized, showing thus the dispersal speed of the insect pest.
Distribution and Habitat in Mexico of Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and their Cacti Hosts (Cactaceae: Opuntioideae)
Chávez-Moreno, CK;Tecante, A;Casas, A;Claps, LE;
Neotropical Entomology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100009
Abstract: the distribution pattern of species of the genus dactylopius costa in mexico was analyzed in relation to the distribution of their host plants (subfamily opuntioideae) to evaluate the specificity of the insect-host association. the distribution of dactylopius currently recognized is narrower than that of its hosts and probably is not representative. therefore, a broader distribution of the dactylopius species in correspondence with those of their hosts was hypothesized. insects and their hosts were collected and georeferenced in 14 states of mexico from 2005 to 2007. the distribution areas, maps, and habitat characteristics of dactylopius, opuntia sensu stricto, nopalea and cylindropuntia were determined on the basis of field collections and examination of museum collections. this information was complemented with information from the exhaustive examination of microscope slides from a local insect collection, plants from local herbaria, and literature reviews. the current distribution of the genus dactylopius and its hosts included 22 and 25 states of mexico, respectively, and dactylopius had a continuous distribution according to its hosts, broader than recognized hitherto. the new georeferenced records of the five mexican dactylopius species are reported. insects with morphological characteristics of d. confusus combined with those of d. salmianus were identified, as well as insects with characteristics of d. opuntiae combined with those of d. salmianus. these records suggest that the number of local dactylopius species could be higher than previously thought or that possible new processes of hybridization between native and introduced species may be occurring.
Crecimiento poblacional de la cochinilla Dactylopius coccus Costa criada en cinco cultivares de nopal Opuntia ficus-indica Mill
Méndez-Gallegos, S. de Jesús;Tarango-Arámbula, L. Antonio;Carnero, Aurelio;Tiberi, Riziero;Díaz-Gómez, Ovidio;
Agrociencia , 2010,
Abstract: cochineal (dactylopius coccus costa) is considered one of the main sources of natural coloring worldwide; therefore, it has been introduced into several countries for commercial exploitation. nevertheless, insect behavior and coloring quality obtained from hosts, other than those of the natural habitat where they develop, are not known. to clarify the aforesaid, survival and reproduction of d. coccus and their quality (percentage of carminic acid) in five cactus pear cultivars (blanco moscatel, colorado moscatel, offer, portolano, sicilia bianca) of different geographic origin, were assessed. the study was carried out in breeding chambers, at 24±1 °c, 65±5% hr, and photoperiod 14:10 (darkness:light), using the demographic technique of life and fertility tables for obtaining the parameters that characterize d. coccus population dynamics. cactus pear cultivars provided as nutritional substrate caused differential effect on survival, reproduction, and carminic acid. the highest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were achieved in the cohorts developed in the cultivars: offer, portolano, and sicilia bianca, with 0.025, 0.021, and 0.003 females d-1. the d. coccus populations reared in cultivars colorado moscatel and blanco moscatel did not have progeny. however, in the latter cultivar, the highest percentage of carminic acid was obtained (19.1 %). in this study, it was possible to differentiate cultivars which could be used as substrate for generating breeding stock or for carminic acid production, or serving both purposes.
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