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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines  [cached]
Ayper Somer
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: Cervical cancer, the second leading cause of death from cancer in women, is caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Two recently developed prophylactic vaccines against HPV could substantially reduce the public-health burden of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. In this article, HPV infections and vaccines against HPV were reviewed.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors  [cached]
Damm, Oliver,Nocon, Marc,Roll, Stephanie,Vauth, Christoph
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18). Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN), respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (re)organization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain). No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case scenarios in the identified health economic modeling analyses range from approximately 3,000 Euro to 40,000 Euro per additional QALY (QALY = Quality-adjusted life year) and approximately 9,000 Euro to 65,000 Euro per additional life year (LYG), respectively. Discussion: The included studies show that both available HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections and probable resulting premalignant lesions of the cervix. However, the duration of protection is currently unclear. With regard to side effects, the vaccination can be considered as secure. Nevertheless, the number of cases wit
Knowledge and Attitudes of The Pediatricians in Turkey Regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine  [cached]
Mesut Y?ld?r?m,?znur Düzoval?,Arzu Kan?k,?zkan K?r?k
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Aim: To look through the knowledge and attitudes of the pediatricians in our country, about the human papillomavirus vaccine, licenced recently in Turkey and the vaccination . Materials and Methods: The survey was sent to 1417 pediatricians between September and December 2007. Statistical analysis were performed by using SPSS 11.5 software.Results: The survey response rate was 30.9% and male/ female ratio was found as 240/198. 92.9% of the pediatricians knew that HPV infection was the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. 76.9% of participants thought that HPV vaccine was effective in preventing cervical cancer. 91.1% of the pediatricians recommended vaccination. The vaccination was suggested particularly for the girls aged between 10 and 12 years ( p=0.001). The rate of recommending vaccination for boys was lower than that of girls for all age groups. The concern of 76.9% of the pediatricians, not recommending vaccination, was the vaccination cost, while 46.2% of them have concernes considering the worries of parents about the probability for the vaccination to cause risky sexual behaviours. In multivariate analysis, it was determined that the participants’ characteristics and the correct response rates do not have any effects on recommending HPV vaccine. Conclusions: This is the first national survey about the knowledge and attitudes of the pediatricians, in Turkey, regarding HPV vaccine. This vaccine was especially recommended for girls. Although the rate of recommending vaccination is high, pediatricians have some concerns related to the cost of vaccination and parents’ negative thoughts about the vaccination. The knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians regarding HPV vaccine will play a critical role in the administration of this vaccine in childhood.
Characterisation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the Azorean population, Terceira island
Isa Dutra, Margarida R Santos, Marta Soares, Ana R Couto, Maria Bruges-Armas, Fernando Teixeira, Luísa Monjardino, Shirley Hodgson, Jácome Bruges-Armas
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-3-6
Abstract: Cervical samples were collected from 289 women aged 16–81 in the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Santo Espírito de Angra do Heroísmo (HSEAH). HPV DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction using the general consensus primers PGMYO9/PGMY11. Commercially available Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays? kits (Genomica) were used to perform HPV genotyping. 30 women were HPV positive, with a median age of 41 years old. Our results show that the overall HPV prevalence was 10.49%. Seventeen genotypes were identified, including 58.82% high risk, 17.65% low risk and 23.53% undetermined risk.Unlike other epidemiological studies, HPV31 was the most frequent type (26.67%) in Terceira Island, followed by HPV16 (10.00%), HPV51, HPV53, HPV70 and HPV82 (6.67%). Further studies are needed to investigate if the HPV types found in our population are associated with the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer.Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main responsible of one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide and persistent infection is the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer.To date, more than one hundred genotypes have been identified and 40 types are sexually transmitted and infect the cervix [1,2]. Most cervical infections are transient and cause either no detectable or mild pathological changes, but in some instances, infections persist and can progress over the course of several years to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and then possibly to invasive cervical cancer.Detailed epidemiological studies of HPV infection, CIN and progression to cancer have tailored which are the most frequent types playing a key role in cervical carcinogenesis (high risk types), and optimal strategies are been designed to prevent, via HPV screening and vaccination, the approximately 200,000 deaths caused by this disease annually worldwide [1].Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of HPV types
Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
Liviu Feller, Neil H Wood, Razia AG Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Head & Face Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-160x-6-15
Abstract: In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear.It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx.Human papillomaviruses have been categorized by their genotypes into low-risk and high-risk types according to the risk of that virus causing squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix [1]. Infection of the uterine cervix with any human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype is associated with high-risk sexual behaviour, particularly if started at a younger age; and persistent infection of the uterine cervix with high-risk HPV genotypes, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, is essential for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) [1-3]. Recent evidence also incriminates high-risk HPV-genotypes in the pathogenesis of oral and oropharyngeal SCC [4-21], and it will be the purpose of this paper to explore this relationship.HPV infection of the mouth and of the oropharynx, like HPV infection of the uterine cervix, is associated with high-risk sexual behaviour, in particular with orogenital sex; and high-risk HPV genotypes, in particular HPV-16, are present in many oral and oropharyngeal SCC where in some cases they probably play an essential aetiological role [17]. Persons with oropharyngeal SCC in which HPV can be detected intracellularly have a better prognosis than persons with HPV-cytonega
Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain  [cached]
García-Espinosa Benjamín,Moro-Rodríguez Ernesto,álvarez-Fernández Emilio
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-533
Abstract: Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. Methods A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Mara ón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). Conclusion As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited.
CLINICAL IMPACT AND IMPLICATION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) IN CERVICAL CANCER  [cached]
Lilian Pustan,Simona Dunca,Octavita Ailiesei
Analele ?tiin?ifice Ale Universit??ii Alexandru Ioan Cuza din Ia?i,Sectiunea II A : Genetica si Biologie Moleculara , 2007,
Abstract: The social and economic evolution of the world’s population in the last years has brought changes also in the prevalence of some diseases. Lately, viral infections have attracted specialists’ interest due to the unexpected complications they cause. Until not so long ago incriminated only for the development of warts, the Human papillomavirus infections have been found also to induce cellular abnormalities, such as the koilocytes, which in their turn indicate low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). According to the latest assessments worldwide, the HPV is responsible for 70% of the cervical cancer cases. The extensive research studies conducted by specialists came to know success when the HPV vaccines were launched on the market. In the summer of 2006, the first vaccine able to stop the expansion of HPV-induced cervical cancer came out, GARDASILTM, produced by Merck and Co., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. It is a tetravalent vaccine (generates immunity against the oncogenic viral types 16 and 18, and the nononcogenic types 6 and 11). In our drugstores, one can find SILGARD, efficient and safe, providing 5-year protection, but not eradicating the effects of the viral infections acquired prior to vaccination. Apparition of the vaccine does not exclude cytological screening, which remains the most effective way to detect early a potential cancer of the cervix.
Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica  [PDF]
Rolando Herrero, Wim Quint, Allan Hildesheim, Paula Gonzalez, Linda Struijk, Hormuzd A. Katki, Carolina Porras, Mark Schiffman, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Diane Solomon, Silvia Jimenez, John T. Schiller, Douglas R. Lowy, Leen-Jan van Doorn, Sholom Wacholder, Aimée R. Kreimer, for the CVT Vaccine Group
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068329
Abstract: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines  [cached]
Emre Alhan
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Since April 2006, in accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to member states World Health Organization (WHO) issues a series off regularly updated position papers on vaccines and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an international public health impact according to the experts report. WHO published its first position paper on vaccinees against diseases caused by human papillomaviruses on 10th of April 2009. In this paper, the WHO’s suggestions for HPV vaccines will be discussed.
Lack of papillomavirus (HPV) in pterygia of a Brazilian sample
Schellini, Silvana Artioli;Hoyama, Erika;Shiratori, Claudia Akemi;Sakamoto, Regina Hitomi;Candeias, Jo?o Manuel Grisi;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492006000400012
Abstract: purpose: because the influence of papillomavirus (hpv) in pterygium pathogenesis is controversial, the aim of this study was to identify whether it is present in the pterygia lesions in our region. methods: thirty-six patients with unilateral primary pterygia were submitted to excision of pterygia and a sample of normal conjunctiva. tissues were submitted to polymerase chain reaction (pcr) evaluation for papillomavirus dna detection. results: we were unable to detect any hpv dna in all studied specimens. conclusion: according to our results papillomarivus is not important for pterygium formation.
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