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Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds
K Pettersson, C Svensson, P Liberg
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-42-465
Abstract: In modern milk production, calves are often overlooked. Increased knowledge about their situation is important for offering these animals rearing conditions in which they can maintain good health and adjust to milk production. A link between housing and health during the rearing period has been established by several authors; [19,11,37,36] and [49] found group housing to be a risk factor for disease, while [45] reported conflicting results. Furthermore, it has been shown that heifers suffering from a high incidence of disease as young calves have an increased risk of disease later in life, as well as a higher age at first calving [56]. [9] found that heifers that were healthy as calves were twice as likely to calve and calved 6 months earlier compared with calves that had suffered from respiratory disease during their first 90 days of life. Raising replacement heifers in such a manner that they will give birth for the first time around 24 months of age has been found to reduce production costs [38]. [32] estimated the optimal average age at first calving, from an economic point of view, to be 20.5 months in Holstein animals in Pennsylvania. None of these rearing aims are possible without optimal rearing conditions. It has been shown that management throughout the rearing period influences the longevity of the dairy cow and thereby the total herd economy [14]. In order for veterinarians and other advisors to be able to adapt their guidance to the situation on the individual farm, it is important to know which routines are used for management of replacement heifers on that farm. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive view of the housing systems and the feeding and management routines used for replacement heifers in Swedish dairy herds.A questionnaire was sent to 1500 dairy herds, randomly selected among all herds in Sweden that had 28–94 cows and were registered in the official milk-recording programme. A cover letter explaining the purpose of the projec
Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden
Cecilia Hamilton, Ulf Emanuelson, Kristina Forslund, Ingrid Hansson, Torkel Ekman
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-48-11
Abstract: An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional) and incidence of disorders.The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score) compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis.The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage.Udder health in Swedish organic herds appears to be better than in conventional herds of comparable size and production. The major difference in management between the two types of farms is the proportion of concentrates fed. The mechanisms explaining the association between intensity of feeding and udder health in dairy cows require further research.Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic
Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds  [cached]
I.M. Petzer,J. Karzis,J.C. Watermeyer,T.J. Van der Schans
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v80i1.163
Abstract: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a minor pathogen) significantly. Isolations of Streptococcus agalactiae peaked between 2000 and 2005 and decreased again by 2007. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates increased from 2002 and were still on the increase in 2007. Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus canis were isolated more frequently from milk samples of lactating cows compared with dry cows, while Enterococcus faecalis was isolated more frequently from dry cow samples.
Frequency and Distribution of Pathologies Associated with Lameness Problems in Commercial Dairy Herds in Baja California, Mexico
Gilberto Lopez Valencia,Tomas B. Renteria Evangelista,Alejandro Plascencia Jorquera,Lourdes Pujol Manriquez,Miguel A. Montano Hodgers,Gerardo Medina Basulto,. Salome Saucedo Quintero,Alfonso de la Mora Valle,L. Mario Munoz del Real
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: In order to determine the frequency and distribution of lesions and/or diseases associated with lameness problems in commercial dairy herds with Holstein cows, in Baja California, Mexico, a two stage transverse epidemiological study was carried out in 592 milking cows with frequent lameness. During the first stage, a locomotion scoring method (LS), index that measures the cow s capacity to walk was used. Cows were observed during milking assigning to each a score of 1 to 5, where LS1 represents a normal cow and LS5 represents cases of severe lameness. Results gave a 17.5% frequency of evident and severe lameness. During the second stage of this study, 37.5% (39/104) of the cows that had these scores (LS4 and LS5) were randomly selected and carefully inspected in order to detect and classify severe pathologies. In total, 89 lesions were detected; of these, 36% were linked to white line disease; 27% to double sole; 15.7% to corkscrew claw; 6.8% to fissures (vertical and horizontal); the remaining lesions (14.5%) were associated with abscess and talon ulcer cases, as well as digital and interdigital dermatitis. In conclusion, the high frequency of white line disease and double sole in the region may be mainly associated to two factors: diet formula and the lack of a routine preventive hoof trimming program.
M. Mulas,G. Bassu,A. Coccollone,G. Masia
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.1s.267
Abstract: Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.
Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds
HP Kj?stad, HJ Myren
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-42-181
Abstract: Dairy cows are mainly kept either individually tethered in stalls or in non-confinement housing systems. Non-confinement dairy housing originally did not provide individual lying spaces, but was further developed by the introduction of the cubicle [16,5].Rising labour costs during the last decades has led to cubicle housing becoming the favoured system for keeping large dairy herds. Additional benefits of such housing systems, such as allowing the cows to express a broader pattern of behaviour, have led to its more general acceptance and have contributed to many cubicle sheds being also erected in countries in which herds are generally of medium or small size. In Norway, there are examples of such sheds for herds as small as 8 cows [3].Some early reports on installing cubicles in loose housing sheds claimed that this significantly reduced the need for bedding, reduced labour costs, and resulted in cleaner and gentler cows and fewer teat and udder injuries [9,11,21]. However, it was also found that some cows refused to use the cubicles and chose to lie down in the alley or dunging area [9]. This behaviour still seems to be relatively common, as one can frequently hear it described by farmers as well as practising veterinarians.The behaviour of partly or fully lying down outside a cubicle, hereafter referred to as cubicle refusal, is highly undesirable. It leads to contamination of bellies and udders with faeces and urine, which is detrimental to milk parlour hygiene, and which may ultimately lead to impaired milk quality because of bacterial contamination of the milk [14,13]. The added necessity to thoroughly clean the udder increases the labour associated with milking. Furthermore, it is an established fact that some faecal bacteria, for instance Escherichia coli, are potential udder pathogens [6]. It is therefore likely that the increase in pathogen density associated with faecal soiling of the udder surface may increase the risk of mastitis. There is also the chil
Survey of Reasons of Culling in Dairy Holstein Herds in Tabriz Area of Iran
Afshin Davasaztabrizi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.4246.4249
Abstract: To evaluate of the factors for culling of the Holstein dairy cows in an industrial herd in Tabriz, data of the reasons for deleting is divided in seven groups such as financial factors, infertility and reproduction problems, low milking cows, mastitis and udder problems, lameness, digestive system diseases, etc. At all, 2458 Holstein cows in 9 herds have evaluated. Selling the cow for the milk, infertility and low milking cows were the important reasons for culling that were 127 and 78 from 326 cows in order. The fourth reason for deleting was mastitis and udder problems that include 21 cows. The fifth factor was the digestive system diseases with 16 cows. The voluntary reason for culling was the selling cows plus low milking cows that was 56% of the culled cows. The most involuntary culling reason was for infertility and reproduction problems that were 24% of total and 41% of involuntary culling.
Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation
Sogstad ?M,Fjeldaas T,?ster?s O
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-46-4-203
Abstract: Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.
Tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe  [cached]
D.N. Ndhlovu,P.V. Makaya,B.L. Penzhorn
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v76i2.48
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in Gwanda district of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Eight tick species were identified: Amblyomma hebraeum, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Rhipicephalus simus. Overall, 81.5 % of the cattle were tick infested; prevalence of tick-infested cattle was significantly higher on communal land (93.8 %) and recently claimed land (85.1 %) than on commercial farms. The mean tick load on infested cattle on communal land was significantly higher than in the other two sectors. Although 53 % of the sampled cattle had some degree of udder and teat damage, very few farmers (2.6 %) treated their cattle for these conditions. Udder damage was ca. two times and three times, respectively, more likely to occur in cattle on communal land compared to cattle on recently claimed land and commercial farms. The occurrence of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis indicate that the cattle population in the study area is at high risk of a theileriosis outbreak, a tick-borne disease that has not been reported from this area.
Claudicaciones en vacas de reba os lecheros grandes y peque os del sur de Chile Lameness in cows from large and small dairy herds in southern Chile  [cached]
E Flor,N Tadich
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2008,
Abstract: Se determinó la prevalencia de vacas cojas, la frecuencia de las patologías pódales y el grado de claudicación en 91 reba os lecheros en la Décima Región de Chile. Treinta y cuatro reba os lecheros grandes (RLG), con un tama o de reba o promedio de 299 ± 57 vacas y 57 reba os peque os (RLP), con un tama o de reba o promedio de 28 ± 19 vacas, fueron visitados por una sola vez, entre agosto y diciembre del 2004. En la visita se observó la locomoción de las vacas en orde a, clasificándose de 0 (sana) a 4 (muy coja). En las vacas cojas se examinaron los cuatro miembros. Los datos fueron registrados en fichas individuales e incorporados como variables numéricas a una plantilla Excel y analizados mediante el programa Statistixs 8.0. Las diferencias entre las prevalencias de los RLG y RLP y entre los distintos grados de claudicación, se determinaron mediante la prueba de χ2. Se estudiaron 10.159 y 1.600 vacas en RLG y RLP, respectivamente. La prevalencia total de vacas cojas en RLG fue de 33,12% y 28,7% en los RLP (P < 0.02). En los RLG un 50,85% de las vacas cojas presentaron una claudicación ≥ 2, y un 44,05% en los RLP. Las principales patologías en los RLG fueron: enfermedad de la línea blanca (54,9%), hemorragia plantar (52,7%) y erosión de talones (48,4%); en los RLP: enfermedad de la línea blanca (82,5%), erosión de talones (53,3%) y hemorragia plantar (24,6%). Un 92% de las lesiones causantes de cojeras afectaron los miembros posteriores, en ambos tipo de reba os. Existe una alta prevalencia de vacas cojas en los reba os lecheros de la Décima Región. La prevalencia y frecuencia de presentación de las lesiones fueron diferentes en los RLG, comparados con los RLP. This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of lame cows, the frequency of the lesions and the degree of cow's lameness in 91 dairy farms of the Xth Region in Chile. Thirty-four large dairy herds (LDH) with 10,159 (299 ± 57) cows and 57 small dairy herds (SDH) with 1,600 (28 ± 19) cows were visited once each, between August and December of 2004. During the visit the locomotion of all milking cows was observed. The degree of lameness was scored from 0 (not lame) to 4 (severe lameness). In lame cows all four feet were examined. Cow's data was recorded on individual recording sheets, being introduced as numerical variables in an Excel spread sheat, and analyzed using the statistical software Statistixs 8.0. The difference in prevalence between large and small herds and between different degrees of lameness was determined using χ2 Test. The prevalence of lameness was 33.12% in LD
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