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Distribui??o espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) no estado de Mato Grosso
Missawa, Nanci Akemi;Lima, Giovana Belem Moreira;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822006000400004
Abstract: visceral leishmaniasis is currently considered an emergent and reemergent disease, in agricultural and urban zones, both in domestic and peridomestic areas. the objective of this work was to verify the spatial distribution of lutzomyia longipalpis and lutzomyia cruzi in mato grosso state. data from 1996 to 2004 was collected by the entomology laboratory, whose captures were carried with a cdc light trap. sixty-eight of the 139 cities in the state have been studied. lutzomyia longipalpis and lutzomyia cruzi occurred in 23 and 22 cities, respectively. the results demonstrate the extensive occurrence of lutzomyia longipalpis in areas with different vegetation types: savanna, transition and amazon forest. lutzomyia cruzi occurred mainly in cities with areas of marshland and savanna. verification of the distribution of the vector populations in the state and their preferential vegetation type, provides an indication of vulnerable and/or receptive areas for disease transmission.
Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers  [PDF]
Mirella F. C. Santos, Paulo E. M. Ribolla, Diego P. Alonso, José D. Andrade-Filho, Aline E. Casaril, Alda M. T. Ferreira, Carlos E. S. Fernandes, Reginaldo P. Brazil, Alessandra G. Oliveira
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074268
Abstract: Background Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within?Lu. longipalpis?populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself.
Isolation and Identification of 9-methylgermacrene-B as the Putative Sex Pheromone of Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Brazil, Reginaldo P;Hamilton, JGC;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762002000300030
Abstract: lutzomyia (lutzomyia) cruzi has been named as a probable vector of leishmania chagasi in corumbá, mato grosso do sul, brazil. taxonomically l. cruzi is closely related to the l. longipalpis species complex. females of l. cruzi and l. longipalpis are morphologically indistinguishable and associated males must be examined carefully to confirm identifications. chemical analysis hexane extracts of male l. cruzi has revealed the presence of a 9-methylgermacrene-b (c16), a homosesquiterpene (mw 218) previously shown to be the sex pheromone of one of the members of the l. longipalpis species complex.
Isolation and Identification of 9-methylgermacrene-B as the Putative Sex Pheromone of Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae)  [cached]
Brazil Reginaldo P,Hamilton JGC
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002,
Abstract: Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi has been named as a probable vector of Leishmania chagasi in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Taxonomically L. cruzi is closely related to the L. longipalpis species complex. Females of L. cruzi and L. longipalpis are morphologically indistinguishable and associated males must be examined carefully to confirm identifications. Chemical analysis hexane extracts of male L. cruzi has revealed the presence of a 9-methylgermacrene-B (C16), a homosesquiterpene (mw 218) previously shown to be the sex pheromone of one of the members of the L. longipalpis species complex.
Evidência de transmiss?o de leishmaniose visceral por Lutzomyia cruzi no município de Jaciara, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil
Missawa, Nanci Akemi;Veloso, Márcia Aurélia Esser;Maciel, Giovana Belem Moreira Lima;Michalsky, érika Monteiro;Dias, Edelberto Santos;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822011000100017
Abstract: introduction: the municipality of jaciara was classified in 2003 as a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis in outbreak situations. this study aimed to establish evidence of transmission of leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi by lutzomyia cruzi in the municipality of jaciara, state of mato grosso, brazil. methods: this municipality is located 127 km from the state capital (cuiabá) and is an important center for ecotourism practitioners. females of lutzomyia cruzi, captured using cdc traps, were dissected to confirm the species and stored at -20oc in pools of 10 individuals for dna extraction, generic pcr, specific rflp and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. results: the entomological survey showed abundant occurrence of lutzomyia cruzi and absence of lutzomyia longipalpis (the main vector for leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi). one of the three samples showed a characteristic dna band from leishmania (120 bp) in generic pcr. to confirm the leishmania species via rflp, positive controls for leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis, leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi digested with restriction enzyme haeiii were used. a pattern of bands similar to leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi was found in one sample, thus confirming the detection of natural infection with leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi in lutzomyia cruzi. conclusions: the occurrences of positive cases in humans and dogs, the presence of lutzomyia cruzi and the absence of lutzomyia longipalpis together with the detection of natural infection with leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi, indicate that lutzomyia cruzi participates in visceral leishmaniasis transmission in jaciara, state of mato grosso, brazil.
Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Oliveira, Everton Falc?o de;Silva, Elaine Araújo e;Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos;Paranhos Filho, Antonio Concei??o;Gamarra, Roberto Macedo;Ribeiro, Alisson André;Brazil, Reginaldo Pe?anha;Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000300015
Abstract: the relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. this study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (vl) cases at an urban area of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul. the sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. these buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of vl. the abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the gis software pci geomatica. the normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing ikonos-2 image. the average ndvi was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. one thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. we found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average ndvi. however, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.
Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) chagasi in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis
Missawa, Nanci A.;Michalsky, érika Monteiro;Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre;Santos Dias, Edelberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2010001200020
Abstract: the american visceral leishmaniasis (avl) is caused by parasites belonging to the genus leishmania (trypanosomatidae) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of certain species of infected phlebotomine sand flies. in this study, we investigated the natural infection ratio of lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector species of avl in brazil, in várzea grande, mato grosso state. between july 2004 and june 2006, phlebotomine sand flies were captured in peridomestic areas using cdc light-traps. four hundred and twenty (420) specimens of lu. longipalpis were captured. 42 pools, containing 10 specimens of lu. longipalpis each, were used for genomic dna extraction and pcr (polymerase chain reaction) amplification. leishmania spp. dna was detected in three out of the 42 pools tested, resulting in a minimal infection ratio of 0.71%. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis indicated that leishmania (l.) chagasi was the infective agent in the positive pools.
Comportamento de Lutzomyia longipalpis, vetor principal da leishmaniose visceral americana, em Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul
Silva, Elaine Araujo e;Andreotti, Renato;Honer, Michael Robin;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822007000400010
Abstract: the municipality of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, has presented cases of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis since 2002, and is classified as an area of intense transmission. this study was carried out from may 2003 to april 2005, in partnership with the national health foundation and the state health department, with the objective of determining the behavior and seasonality of the species lutzomyia longipalpis. captures were accomplished using luminous traps of cdc type, at twelve stations distributed in the urban zone. the stations with the highest population densities were situated in the southern part of the city and the relative abundance increased during or immediately after rainfall. during the cold and dry months, the number of specimens was reduced and the relative abundance was higher in habitats surrounding homes. spraying with alpha-cypermethrin at four-month intervals contributed towards reducing the vector numbers in three of the four sprayed stations. among the eight stations that did not receive chemical interventions, five showed an increase.
Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de;Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi;Oliveira, Orcy de;Oliveira, Gilliard Rezende de;Espindola, Italo Alexander Cabello;Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros;Brazil, Reginaldo Pe?anha;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000800008
Abstract: the outspread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, lead us to undertake the present study over diversity and abundance of sand flies in the urban area to compare with previous search carried out during 1999/2000, before the identification of the disease in the human population.the captures were carried out with automatic light traps, weekly, from february 2004 to february 2005 on three sites including a forested area (zé pereira), two peridomicilies (shelters of domestic animals and cultivation areas), and intradomicilie. in the present study 110 collections were obtained during 13 months for 1320 h of collections, resulting in 5004 specimens, 3649 males and 1355 females belonging to the 20 following species: brumptomyia avellari, brumptomyia sp., bichromomyia flaviscutellata, evandromyia lenti, e. termitophila, e. cortelezzii, e. borrouli, lutzomyia sp., l. longipalpis, micropygomyia quinquefer, n. antunesi, n. whitmani, pintomyia christenseni, pi. damascenoi, psathyromyia aragaoi, ps. campograndensis, ps. hermanlenti, ps. shannoni, pychodopygus claustrei, and sciopemyia sordellii. l. longipalpis was the most abundant species in the anthropic environment with 92.22% of the captures. this shows an increase of sixty times in the density of l. longipalpis compared to the last sand fly evaluation in 1999/2000. the high density of l. longipalpis in campo grande is the main factor of risk in transmission of the disease to human in the urban area. the capture of n. antunesi, typical specie from amazonian region, in mato grosso do sul is reported for the first time.
Analysis of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Barra do Gar?as, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)
Queiroz, Mirian Francisca Martins;Varj?o, Jane Ramos;Moraes, Sinara Cristina de;Salcedo, Gladys Elena;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822012000300007
Abstract: introduction: leishmaniasis is an infectious and parasitic zoonotic, non-contagious, vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania. in brazil, the major vector of leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi (cunha & chagas, 1934) is lutzomyia longipalpis. barra do gar?as, state of mato grosso, was designated as a priority area by the brazilian ministry of health for american visceral leishmaniasis, and it is important to identify the vector species present in this municipality. our objective was to raise sandflies and study the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of lutzomyia longipalpis. methods: we performed entomological monitoring in 3 districts using centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light traps and recorded human cases of american visceral leishmaniasis in the city. we calculated the relative frequency and richness of sandflies and applied a transfer function model to the vector density correlate with relative humidity. results: the sandfly population was composed of 2 genera and 27 species, totaling 8,097 individuals. monitoring identified lutzomyia longipalpis (44%), followed by lutzomyia lenti (18.9%), lutzomyia whitmani (13.9%), lutzomyia carmelinoi (9.1%), lutzomyia evandroi (5.1%), lutzomyia termitophila (3.3%), lutzomyia sordellii (1.9%), and 20 other species (<4%). the male:female ratio was 3.5:1. we observed high species diversity (dα = 6.65). lutzomyia longipalpis showed occurrence peaks during the rainy season; there was a temporal correlation with humidity, but not with frequency or temperature. conclusions: the presence of lutzomyia longipalpis in the urban area of barra do gar?as underscores the changing disease profile, which was previously restricted to the wild environment.
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