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Historical mammal distribution data: How reliable are written records?
Andre F. Boshoff,Graham I.H. Kerley
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i1/2.116
Abstract: Written historical records are widely used to estimate the previous distributions of the larger mammals in southern Africa. However, such records have some limitations and the use of those older than 100 years has been questioned. Written historical records, from the broader Eastern Cape, South Africa, were investigated to examine this contention critically. They were classified according to record quality (acceptability of identification and precision of locality) and analysed according to two levels: ‘all’ species and ‘noticeable’ versus ‘non-noticeable’ species. Records that comprise acceptable identification and precise locality information are the most suitable for mapping historical distributions; they form 33% of the records for the 27 mammal species analysed. A further 49% of the records have acceptable identification but imprecise locality information; they can fulfil a useful function when supported by records where both parameters are of good quality. Thus, the majority (82%) of written historical records from the study area are useful for compiling historical distribution maps and the quality of these records is consistent back to 1750 for this data set. The number and quality of written historical records varies between species. Historical distribution data should be evaluated for reliability (quality) and degree of usefulness, rather than simply discarded a priori.
New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology  [cached]
G.N. Bronner
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1990, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v33i2.435
Abstract: New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae) are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.
New Mammal Records for the Karoo National Park, with Notes on Several Other Species  [cached]
C.T. Stuart,T. Durk Stuart,H.H. Braack
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1987, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v30i1.506
Abstract: Five species of mammal are recorded for the first time in the Karoo National Park: Suncus varilla, Nycteris thebaica, Aethomys granti, Petromyscus collinus and Desmodillus auricularis. The presence of a golden mole, Chrysochloridae, is noted. Notes on three previously recorded species are presented.
Male breast cancer in North eastern Nigeria
D Dogo, BM Gali, N Ali, HA Nggada
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Carcinoma of the male breast is generally rare and constitutes 1% of all breast cancers. They often present late in developing countries and therefore has poor prognosis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the pattern of presentation and problems associated with management of this disease in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Patients And Method: Case records of eleven (11) histologically diagnosed male breast cancers out of a total of two hundred and ninety-five (295) cases of breast cancer managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between 1989-2003 were retrospectively studied and analysed. Results: Male breast cancer constitutes 3.7% of all cases of breast cancers seen in this hospital during the study period under review. The male to female ratio was 1:26.The peak age range at presentation was 40-49 years and all were advanced at presentation. The time interval between onset of symptoms and presentation were all over 12 months. All the patients either had toilet mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy. In addition, two patients had sub capsular orchidectomy while nine had Tamoxifen. Four patients had additional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two patients died in the course of follow-up while the rest were lost to follow-up shortly after discharge. Only one patient was followed-up for more than two years. Conclusion: Male breast cancer though rare, is a serious clinical problem associated with late presentation. It is hoped that increased public awareness will improve the outcome of management. .
A 20-year Review Of Twin Births At Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, South Eastern Nigeria
I Sunday-Adeoye, ED Twomey, VE Egwuatu
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: To provide information on twin deliveries among Igbos in a rural/semi-urban community of South-Eastern Nigeria, and compare the twinning rate with data from the other two major tribes. Methods: An analysis of the records of deliveries conducted over a 20-year period in a rural/semi-urban community of South-Eastern Nigeria. Results: The twinning rate of the community was 1:24, and increased with increasing maternal age, and generally with birth rank. Twin births were associated with a MMR of 895/100,000, and PMR of 213/1000 maternities, figures 3.4 and 1.7 times those of the total maternal and perinatal mortalities respectively. Ninty percent of the twin mothers delivered vaginally, 2% with the aid of symphysiotomy. Caesarean section rate was 10.6%. Conclusion: The twinning rate within Nigeria may probably be dictated by location rather than ethnicity. The maternal and perinatal mortalities associated with twin pregnancies in this study appear higher than for singleton births.
Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria
Okoro Philemon,Igwe Patrick,Ukachukwu Alvan
African Journal of Paediatric Surgery , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007) at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4%) were male and 22 (41.6%) were female (M:F = 1.4:1). Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5%) patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5%) and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%). Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8%) deaths and 46 (86%) patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.
Nasopharyngeal cancer in north-eastern Nigeria: clinical trends
H.I Garandawa, B.M Ahmad, H.A Nggada
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2009,
Abstract: Nasopharyngeal cancer is the malignancy of the posterior aspect of the nose called Nasopharynx. It is one of themost difficult diseases to diagnose at an early stage. To determine prevalence, clinical trends and histopathological types of Nasopharyngeal cancer in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Fifteen year retrospective evaluation of patient’s case notes and cancer registry records of 40 patientswith histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal cancer between 1991-2005. Nasopharyngeal cancers constituted 35.1% of all malignancies of ear, nose, throat during the study period.TheM:Fwas 2.1-1, themean agewas 39( 16.5) years and a peak age group and its occurrence of 40-49 years. The commonest symptom at presentation were cervical lymphadenopathy (72.5%), rhinorrhoea (55%), epistaxis(45%). The commonest histological type was squamous cell carcinoma(92.5%). Patients who received chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy and higher symptom free period. Cancer is a difficult disease to diagnose at an stage.Ameticulous ear, nose and throat examination and thorough evaluation of nasal symptoms with associated cervical lymphadenopathy may lead to an early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer’s.
New distributional bird records from the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador  [PDF]
Solano-Ugalde, A.,Real-Jibaja, G. J.
Check List , 2010,
Abstract: Distribution of birds is dynamic. Understanding, documentation and appropriate use of new records areessential, especially when managing threatened species. Here we present novel data regarding new distributional recordsfor 17 bird species along the Amazonian slopes of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. The new records fill gaps on our knowledgein the distribution, both in latitude and altitude.
Biotic and abiotic correlates of small mammal community structure in the Groendal Wilderness Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa  [cached]
L.M. Els,G.I.H. Kerley
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1996, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v39i2.299
Abstract: We investigated the relations between environmental features (biotic and abiotic) and small mammal communities in the Groendal Wilderness Area, South Africa. Habitat architecture (expressed as both horizontal and vertical foliage density) and total plant canopy cover (especially shrub canopy cover) are the most important correlates of small mammal community structure at this site. The mechanisms for these relationships are complex, probably involving physiological, social and anti-predator effects as well as reflecting nutritional resources. Furthermore, man and fire influence small mammal community structure. These effects are as a result of altered plant community composition and structure by plantation and pasture establishment and burning. In order to maintain a diversity of small mammal communities, management should ensure a mosaic of diverse vegetation communities.
Euastacus morgani sp. n., a new spiny crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the highland rainforests of eastern New South Wales, Australia  [cached]
Jason Coughran,Robert McCormack
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.85.1237
Abstract: Euastacus morgani sp. n., is described from a highland, rainforest site in Bindarri National Park, in eastern New South Wales, Australia. Euastacus morgani is found living sympatrically with two more common species, E. dangadi Morgan, 1997 and E. neohirsutus Riek, 1956. Systematically, the species belongs in the ‘simplex’ complex of the genus that includes E. simplex Riek, 1956, E. clarkae Morgan, 1997, E. maccai McCormack and Coughran 2008 and E. morgani. This new species differs from its nearest congenor, E. simplex, inthree mesial carpal spines. A key to the ‘simplex’ complex is presented.
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