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Mardalena,L. Warly,E. Nurdin,W.S.N. Rusmana
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture , 2011,
Abstract: Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS) as source of antioxidants (AOX). FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM) each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate), R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX), R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX), R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX). The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p<0.05) among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference (P>0.05) on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.
A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats
M. Rovai,A. Lock,T. Gipson,A. Goetsch
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.629
Abstract: The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA) on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg) in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A) unsupplemented (Control), B) supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE), and C) supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE). Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05). Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001), with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.
Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk  [cached]
?eljka Klir,Zvonko Antunovi?,Josip Novoselec
Mljekarstvo , 2012,
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0), caprylic (C8:0), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1), linoleic (C18:2) and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.
Effect of unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows fed a high fibre diet  [cached]
Giorgio Marchesini,Igino Andrighetto,Anna-Lisa Stefani,Paolo Berzaghi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.391
Abstract: The influence of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) supplement on productive performance, physiochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) profile of milk, was investigated in lactating dairy cows fed with high fibre diets. According to a cross-over design, twelve cows were assigned to two experimental settings characterized by different FA profiles. Cows received a high fibre diet (~42% NDF on DM basis) supplemented with soybean based mixtures with these FA compositions: 92.0% of saturated FA (SFA), 2.8% of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and 5.2% of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the control diet (C-diet); 19.1% of SFA, 20.9% of MUFA and 60.0% of PUFA in the experimental diet (E-diet). The E-diet did not affect dry matter intake nor milk yield. Milk composition and coagulation traits resulted similar between treatments, except for the lactose level, which was lower in the E-diet (5.0 vs 4.8%; P<0.05) and the freezing point (-0.546 vs -0.535 °C; P<0.05). As respects the milk FA profile, the E-diet significantly increased the percentage of UFA because of their greater amount in the ration; however the “transfer” of UFA in milk was limited by the high level of FA biohydrogenation (BH) at the ruminal level. UFA showed low values of carry over in milk (67.5 vs 39.7%; P<0.001) due to the saturation process; on the contrary SFA had a threefold increment (124 vs 323%; P<0.001), mostly due to a peak in the production of stearic acid. In this study, the percentage of CLA in milk (0.50 vs 0.62%; P<0.05) was quite low for both diets, if compared with other studies, and this was probably due to a low vaccenic acid supply at duodenal level.
Effect of α-linoleic acid supplementation in goat’s diet on milk yield, quality and somatic cell count  [cached]
Vesna Gantner,Drago Kompan
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s3.139
Abstract: Investigation of the effect of α-linoleic acid (ALA) on goat’s milk production (daily milk yield, fat and protein content) and somatic cell count (SSC) and the persistence of this effect after supplement termination was conducted on 32 Alpine breed goats kept on an indoor Alpine farm. After adaptation period the animals were randomly allocated according to treatment into control group (G0) with no added supplement and test group (G1) where supplement containing ALA was added over a period of five days. Measurements of milk yield and sampling for analysis of milk composition in adaptation period, treatment period and first five days of period after treatment occurred every day at each milking (morning and evening). From the 5th to the 50th day of the after treatment period, measurements and sampling occurred every fifth day. Based on the conducted research it could be concluded that supplementation had no effect on milk yield; it had low effect on milk components and significant effect on SSC. This could be used as a method of choice for reduction of SCC in goat’s milk.
The Effect of Feed Supplement on the Yield and Composition of Buffalo Milk  [cached]
M.O. Faruque,M.I. Hossain
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.488
Abstract: The study was made to find out the effect of feed supplement on the yield and composition of milk of indigenous buffaloes lived on grazing condition and zero concentrate supplements in Bangladesh. Buffaloes in control group were allowed to graze in the field approximately 7 hours daily from morning to evening. They were given rice straw sometimes in the morning or evening as basal diet but no concentrate mixture was given. The control group was allowed to graze in the field 7 hours daily and was supplied with rice straw (ad labium) and one kg concentrates mixture. Buffaloes of both groups were of indigenous river types and in the same stage of lactation. Records on daily lactation yield and milk composition at fortnightly interval were maintained. The average lactation period and daily lactation yield were 258 days and 2.58 + 0.32 kg, and 264 days and 2.95 + 0.61 kg for controlled and treated group respectively. The difference for milk yield of two groups was not significant. The average protein, ash, solids-not fat and total solids of the milk of treated group was significantly higher than that of controlled group; but fat, lactose and acidity contents of milk of both groups were almost same. Dietary supplementation might not be required for improving the quantity and quality of milk yield of buffaloes when plenty of natural grass is available.
Relationships among malondialdehyde, milk compositions, and somatic cell count in milk from bulk tank
Witaya Suriyasathaporn,Usanee Vinitketkumnuen,Teera Chewonarin
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The goals of this study were to identify associations of malondialdehyde (MDA) with milk compositions and somaticcell counts (SCC) in milk from bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from small-holder dairy farms (n = 133) belongingto the Mae-On dairy cooperative, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. After routine testing for bulk tank SCC (BMSCC), milksamples were tested for milk compositions and milk MDA, respectively. To normalize the BMSCC data, they were transformed to scores of BMSCC. Results from Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that any pairs of BMSCC, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose were associated to each others (P<0.05). However, milk MDA was significantly associated only with BMSCC. In conclusion, milk malondialdehyde is associated only with somatic cell counts.
Differences in Milk Yield and Composition of Different Goat Breeds Raised in the Same Environment in South Africa
Roger G. Pambu,E.C. Webb,L. Mohale
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.237.242
Abstract: This study investigated milk yield and composition of four different breeds of goat (Indigenous, British alpine, Toggenburg and Saanen) in South Africa. The experiment was a one way (feeding system) analysis of variance in complete random design where eight replicates were randomly selected from each group. As from kidding up to 8 weeks onwards, a weekly single hand-milking collection was performed on each goat; milk yield and body condition score were recorded while milk samples were analyzed on milk fat percentage, milk lactose and milk proteins concentrations. Data were tested for normal distribution and homogeneous treatment variances. Results showed that milk yield from dairy goats were unsurprisingly higher than that of the indigenous goats during the entire period of study. Milk lactose values (3.9-4.9%) confirmed milk lactose as the most stable constituent of the goat s milk. Milk protein concentration (3.1-4.5%) was significantly higher in the indigenous goats than in dairy breeds, especially on week 1 and from week 4 onwards. Milk fat percentage (3.3-7.7%) values displayed a decline in all goats but from week 3 they showed an increase in indigenous goats and from week 5 onwards, they were significantly higher in indigenous goats than in dairy breeds. The superiority of dairy breeds in milk yield was once more time proved while the indigenous goat merit in milk quality was recognized.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.
A. Coccollone,A. Canever,M. Trevisani,A. Borsari
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2009.5.49
Abstract: Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.
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