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Finite Orbits of Language Operations  [PDF]
E. Charlier,M. Domaratzki,T. Harju,J. Shallit
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We consider a set of natural operations on languages, and prove that the orbit of any language L under the monoid generated by this set is finite and bounded, independently of L. This generalizes previous results about complement, Kleene closure, and positive closure.
Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice  [cached]
Audrey Amrein,Robert A. Pe?a
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2000,
Abstract: The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.
A standardised language code for rail freight operations
Transport Problems : an International Scientific Journal , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper a standardised language code for rail freight operations is developed that aims to facilitate communication between dispatchers, train drivers and traffic managers when running freight trains abroad. In developing the language code the existing situation in the bi-lingual Belgian railways has been taken as a starting point. Communication codes from public services like police, fire brigade, ambulance and military services have been studied. It is believed that, if implemented, the code will improve significantly integrated rail freight services in Europe.
Synthesis of Research on Video Games for the Four Second Language Skills and Vocabulary Practice  [PDF]
Anastassiya Yudintseva
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311011
Abstract: The purpose of the present paper is to identify trends in the digital game-based second language learning research by synthesizing findings according to game types and genres, and their effect on reading, writing, speaking, listening skills, and vocabulary outcomes. A total of 26 studies were synthesized. The synthesis concludes that overall, both commercial and serious games and synthetic immersive environments have positive effects on learning outcomes, especially vocabulary. At the same time, the effectiveness of one game type or genre may depend on learners’ gender, second language proficiency, gaming experience, and specific educational objectives. Traditional drill-and-practice may be more effective for vocabulary consolidation than some commercial games. Some learners may still prefer conventional instructions. Recommendations for further research are discussed.
Whole Language Teaching, Whole-Hearted Practice…  [cached]
Amy S. Flint
International Journal of Progressive Education , 2007,
Abstract: Whole Language Teaching, Whole-Hearted Practice: Looking Back, Looking Forward (Taylor, Ed., 2005) is an edited collection of narratives authored by teachers, teacher educators, and researchers as they recount the impact of whole language on their teaching and learning. The essence of the book is captured in the subtitle, Looking Back, Looking Forward. There are chapters devoted to the history of the whole language movement, as well as chapters highlighting the current and future practices of whole language. Important to recognize is that this book is not just a chronology or timeline of the whole language movement. Each chapter also addresses the multilayered dimensions of social justice activism involved in whole language teaching.
Introduction-Minority Language Policy: Theory and Practice
Stefan Oeter
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2007,
Abstract: In practice the Charter has created legal standards that work like individual and collective rights and that empower minority language speakers to insist upon education in minority languages, on using the languages before judicial courts and the administration, on claiming a right to receive radio and television programmes in minority languages, and on insisting to be treated in the minority language in hospitals and homes for the elderly, to name only some of the most important guarantees of the Charter.
A look at the evaluation practice in English Language  [PDF]
Bianca Costa Rodrigues,Marinalva Pires dos Santos Rocha,Rejane Maria Gon?alves
Via Litterae , 2011,
Abstract: This article aims at discussing the evaluation of the teaching-learning process of the English Language. For that, we present its concept, history, approaches, functions and some instruments in order to verify the practice of a teacher of English Language of the Ensino Fundamental Segunda. Fase in the city of Bela Vista de Goiás. Through a descriptive qualitative research, it tries to identify what instruments are used by the teacher, the weight that each one has in the final note and what attitude the teacher has after the evaluating results of the instruments used by her, as well as the theories that are in her practice. The analysis of the collected data reveals that the teacher is conscious of the procedural character of the evaluation and her evaluating practice has characteristics both from the traditional approach and from communicative approach.
Unsupervised Language Acquisition: Theory and Practice  [PDF]
Alexander Clark
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: In this thesis I present various algorithms for the unsupervised machine learning of aspects of natural languages using a variety of statistical models. The scientific object of the work is to examine the validity of the so-called Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus advanced in favour of the proposition that humans have language-specific innate knowledge. I start by examining an a priori argument based on Gold's theorem, that purports to prove that natural languages cannot be learned, and some formal issues related to the choice of statistical grammars rather than symbolic grammars. I present three novel algorithms for learning various parts of natural languages: first, an algorithm for the induction of syntactic categories from unlabelled text using distributional information, that can deal with ambiguous and rare words; secondly, a set of algorithms for learning morphological processes in a variety of languages, including languages such as Arabic with non-concatenative morphology; thirdly an algorithm for the unsupervised induction of a context-free grammar from tagged text. I carefully examine the interaction between the various components, and show how these algorithms can form the basis for a empiricist model of language acquisition. I therefore conclude that the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus is unsupported by the evidence.
Constructivism in Practice: The Case for English Language Learners
Nyaradzo H. Mvududu,Jennifer Thiel-Burgess
International Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v4i3.2223
Abstract: A classroom of diverse learners with diverse language backgrounds can be a great challenge for a classroom teacher. English Language Learners (ELL) present a particular challenge to teachers as they represent such a wide range of academic abilities, English language abilities, and academic background. Constructivism is widely touted as an approach to probe for children’s level of understanding and the ways in which that understanding can be taken to higher level thinking. Constructivism is a way of learning and thinking. It is how students make sense of the material and how they can be taught most effectively. Constructivism as an educational theory holds that teachers should take into account what students know. Teachers then build on this knowledge and allow students to put their knowledge into practice. This paper will explore how the theory of constructivism may benefit ELL students in an inclusive classroom.
Demo or Practice: Critical Analysis of the Language/Action Perspective  [PDF]
Mark Dumay
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Despite offering several promising concepts, the Language/Action Perspective (LAP) is still not in the mainstream of Information Systems Development (ISD). Since at present there is only a limited understanding of LAP theory and practice, it remains unclear whether the lack of LAP's impact is due to shortcomings in LAP theory itself. One classic problem within ISD is the dichotomy between social perspectives and technical perspectives. LAP claims it offers a solution to this problem. This paper investigates this claim as a means to review LAP theory. To provide a structure to a critical analysis of DEMO - an example methodology that belongs to the LAP research community - this paper utilizes a paradigmatic framework. This framework is augmented by the opinion of several DEMO practitioners by means of an expert discussion. With use of a comparative evaluation of LAP theory and DEMO theory, the implication of DEMO's reflection upon LAP is determined. The paper concludes by outlining an agenda for further research if LAP is to improve its footprint in the field.
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