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Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Yield and Yield Components of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
Kiramat Khan,Muhammad Iqbal,Abdul Azim,Bashir Ahmad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Effect of gamma radiation doses; 10, 20 and 30 Krads on yield and yield components of barley was studied in a replicated experiment during the year 2001-2002 at Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak Nowshera NWFP. Except for 1000-grain weight, significant decrease in grain yield and yield components was observed with radiation doses. However, 1000-grain weight showed an increase as the radiation dose was increased. The findings of the study suggested that low doses up to 30 Krads of gamma radiation have direct inhibitory effect on some yield related traits in vegetative growth stage of barley. However, inhibitory effects on yield components related to reproductive stages in barley could not be fully understood which suggests further investigation.
Influence of magnetic field with chemomutagen and gamma rays on the variability of yielding parameters in barley (hordeum vulgare L.)
Rybi?…??ski W.,Pietruszewski S.,Kornarzy?…??ski K.
International Agrophysics , 2003,
Abstract: The goal of performed investigations was estimation of magnetic field, chemomutagen and gamma rays influence on the level of biological injuries of M1 barley plants, expressed by variation of yield structure parameters. Generally in both variants of the experiment, stationary and alternate magnetic field induced the biostimulation effect of analyzed traits as compared to control plants. The results obtained depended on the type of magnetic field used, their intensity, doses of gamma rays or chemomutagen and kind of analyzed trait. In contrast to the magnetic field, the doses of MNU used and particularly the gamma rays caused strong reduction of yields parameters. The reduction observed increased with the use of higher doses of irradiation and MNU treatment. In common treatments (magnetic field + gamma rays or magnetic field + MNU) the values of yield structures obtained were lower as for the separate use of magnetic fields but higher than for separate treatment of grains with gamma rays or MNU. This indicates the protected influence of magnetic fields on the level of biological injuries induced by mutagenic treatment of grains with gamma rays or MNU. This effect has undoubtedly a connection with the biostimulate influence of the magnetic field on the value of yield structure parameters.
Determination of Sensitivity of Semiconductor Detectors of Gamma-Radiation  [PDF]
Alexandr A. Zakharchenko
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Properties of response functions of room temperature gamma-radiation detectors based on wide band-gap semiconductors are researched using Monte-Carlo method. It is shown that approximate formulas which connect detector sensitivity with absorbed energy of monochromatic radiation in the energy range between 0.06 and 3 MeV can be obtained for some kinds of semiconductors. We determined gamma-quantum energy regions and detector thicknesses where obtained approximate formulas are correct. Regions of maximum error of approximate formulas are also determined.
Different Salts Effects on the Germination of Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum bulbosum
A. Tavili,M. Biniaz
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The germination responses of Hordeum ulgare seeds to saline stress caused by different salt types was studied. For this, 25 seeds of mentioned species were placed on filter paper in Petri dishes containing distilled water (control), 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420 mM. saline solution of NaCl, CaCl2 an KCl. The results indicated that saline levels effects were significant (P < 0.05) for seed germination percentage, seed germination velocity, mean time to germination, length of the stem and radicle and seed vigour. Seed germination decreased significantly by increasing salinity levels. Also, the results showed that H. vulgare is more tolerant than H. vulgare against salinity in germination stage.
Nature of Gene Action in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
M.M. Rohman,R. Sultana,R. Podder,A.T.M. Tanjimul Islam
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A 6 x 6 diallel cross (excluding reciprocal) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) dictated both additive and non-additive components were important but dominance components were more predominant than additive components in controlling the inheritance of all the characters under study. The asymmetric distribution of dominant and recessive alleles at loci was found for all the characters. At least 3 groups of genes were found in controlling the dominance in yield. The highest heritability (89%) in narrow sense was observed in 1000 grain weight. Vr-Wr graph indicated over dominance and genetic diversity among the parents.
Response of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Various Growth Stages to Salt Stress
Shazia Naseer
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted during winter 1996-97, to determine the response of barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) at various growth stages to salt stress (0, 8, 12 and 16 dS m -1 NaCl). A progressive decrease occurred in all the growth and yield parameters with increasing soil salinity. Grain yield was reduced by 45.83% at higher salinity level as compared to control. Among the varieties, Jow-83 proved comparatively better than Jow-87. Salinity affected at all the growth stages but it was more pronounced at vegetative stage than flower initiation and grain filling stages.
Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Z Mut, A Gülümser, A Sirat
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Analysis of multienvironment trials (METs) of crops for cultivar evaluation and recommendation is an important issue in plant breeding research. Evaluating both stability of performance and high yield is essential in MET analyses. The objectives of this study were to assess interrelationship among these measures and to identify high-yield and stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in 11 environments during 2001 - 2003 in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Significant differences were observed among barley cultivars for grain yield, thousand-grain weight, hectoliter weight, plant height and heading date. In this study, high values of TOP (proportion of environments in which a genotype ranked in the top third) was associated with high mean yield, but the other methods were not positively correlated with mean yield and instead characterized a static concept of stability. The results of principal component (PC) analysis and correlation analysis of parametric and nonparametric stability statistics and yield indicated that only TOP method would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and stability. This method recommended Fahrettinbey and Sladoran as stable and Balkan 96 and Erginel as unstable genotypes. A biplot of the first two PCs also revealed that the stability statistic methods grouped as three distinct classes that corresponded to different dynamic (agronomic) and static (biological) concepts of stability.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Vernalization Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings  [PDF]
Aaron G. Greenup,Sharyar Sasani,Sandra N. Oliver,Sally A. Walford,Anthony A. Millar,Ben Trevaskis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017900
Abstract: Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals.
Relative efficacy of organic manures in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) production  [PDF]
Ofosu-Anim J,Leitch M
Australian Journal of Crop Science , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of organic sources of nutrients on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was studied in a pot experiment in a heated glasshouse at the University of Wales, Aberyswyth from November 2006 to March 2007. Spring barley seeds were sown in 120 pots containing a mixture of peat and 180g dry weight of poultry manure, cowdung, chicken manure pellet, sheep manure and horse manure. Chicken manure pellet was applied at 3.0 g pot-1 as top dressing. Mineralization pattern of the organic manures was monitored in a parallel experiment with 24 pots containing only the growth media. In this study, organic manures significantly increased plant height and chlorophyll content of leaves over the control plants. The application of inorganic fertilizer increased plant height over chicken manure and compost. In addition chlorophyll content was higher with inorganic fertilizer than cowdung at six weeks after germination. N mineralization significantly varied among organic manure sources with compost having the highest mineralized N and sheep manure the least. Plant tissue analysis revealed significant differences in plant tissue nutrient composition under organic manure treatment. Growing plants in organic manure resulted in 1.2 to1.6-folds, 1.1 to 4-fold and 1.1 to 4.1-fold increases in total N content of plant tissue at four weeks, eight weeks and twelve weeks after germination, respectively. Dry matter production by plants was also significantly increased under organic manure treatments. Organic manure application had the potential of increasing spring barley yield by 1.5 to 4-fold. Cowdung appeared to be the best source of organic manure for spring barley production.
Hordein variation in Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild barley (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.)
Echart-Almeida, Cinara;Cavalli-Molina, Suzana;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572000000200031
Abstract: sds-page was used to analyze the hordein polypeptide patterns of brazilian barley varieties (hordeum vulgare l.) and of two native species of hordeum from southern brazil (h. euclaston steud. and h. stenostachys godr.). forty different hordein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 30 to 94 kda were found in the seeds of the three species studied. twelve of the 14 varieties examined showed intravarietal polymorphism. the number of bands ranged from 10 to 17, depending on the variety, and from 3 to 13 among individual seeds, with a total of 26 bands in h. vulgare. phenograms using each seed as an operational taxonomic unit (otu) showed that the seeds from most varieties did not form distinct clusters. seeds from different plants of the native species varied considerably. the molecular weights of the hordein polypeptides of the two native species were quite different from those of h. vulgare. there was a greater similarity between the native species than with h. vulgare, although h. stenostachys was slightly closer to the cultivated species than h. euclaston.
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