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Metatextual operators in the shape of the superlative of adverb
Grochowski Maciej
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0864061g
Abstract: It is possible to distinguish in Polish lexical units which are having the shape of the superlative of adverb. They represent classes of metatextual (cf. najnormalniej, najpewniej, najspokojniej, najwidoczniej) or metapredicative (cf. najdalej, najmniej, najwy ej) operators. In this paper the first class of operators is considered. Syntactic features of adverbs and metatextual operators are mutually exclusive. The operators under examination have their counterparts in the shape of the positive in the classes of adverbs as well as particles. However, none of the distinguished operators has counterpart in the shape of the comparative in the class of particles. A metatextual operator - analogically to a particle - opens one position primarily on its right side, for an expression unmarked relative to the degree of complexity. Whereas a superlative of adverb opens two positions the first one for a verb and the second one for a prepositional phrase. In the paper numerous arguments are presented for confirming the hypothesis that lexical units which are having the shape of the superlative of adverb are grammatical homonyms which belong both to adverbs and to particles.
De nome a pronome: um estudo sobre o item senhor  [cached]
Jania Martins Ramos
Caligrama : Revista de Estudos Romanicos , 2011,
Abstract: Resumo: Adotando a concep o formalista de gramaticaliza o, as diferentes realiza es do item senhor foram descritas neste artigo como um processo resultante da recategoriza o de um nome. No eixo diacr nico, foi identificado o seguinte percurso no que diz respeito à posi o estrutural de senhor: adjunto > especificador > núcleo. é na posi o de vocativo que senhor ocorre como nome nu. Este teria sido o gatilho da reanálise nome > pronome ou, mais exatamente, N > D. Palavras-chave: Gramaticaliza o; pronominaliza o; senhor. Abstract: The formalist concept of grammaticalization was adopted in this article in order to describe the different realizations of the item senhor (“sir”) from Brazilian Portuguese as the resulting process of a recategorization of a noun. It was identified the following diachronic path of this item as far as its structural position is concerned: adjunct > specifier > head. It is in the vocative position that the item senhor occurs as a bare noun. This would be the trigger for a reanalysis of the noun > pronoun or, more exactly, N > D. Keywords: Grammaticalization; pronominalization; senhor.
A Tableau Calculus for Pronoun Resolution  [PDF]
Christof Monz,Maarten de Rijke
Computer Science , 2000,
Abstract: We present a tableau calculus for reasoning in fragments of natural language. We focus on the problem of pronoun resolution and the way in which it complicates automated theorem proving for natural language processing. A method for explicitly manipulating contextual information during deduction is proposed, where pronouns are resolved against this context during deduction. As a result, pronoun resolution and deduction can be interleaved in such a way that pronouns are only resolved if this is licensed by a deduction rule; this helps us to avoid the combinatorial complexity of total pronoun disambiguation.
MENDON?A, Maria Eunice B. Vidal,TOSTA, Aline da Silva
Nucleus , 2007,
Abstract: The present research analyze, through a functionalist perspective, the anaphorical pronouns“that” in relative clauses. It will work a corpus composed by student’s writings studying in sixth grades of HighSchool, having as objective, too, point the influence that the oral language has in their writings. The analyse of thedatas allows to confirm the user of the language get to strategies of structuration of the relatives, going against theformal way: becomes generic “that” as na universal relative and get to a personal pronoun to have the anaphoticalfunction, or let empty the structural part of the anaphora pronoun (no anaphora). In this way, confirm our hypothesethat the pronominal anaphora works as a produtive resource of the language that becomes easier, in the pragmaticlevel, the process of information. It was possible to conclude, then, the use of the anaphorical in relative clauses need a revision in the teaching of portuguese language in High School.O presente trabalho examina, sob uma perspectiva funcionalista, o pronome anafórico “que” emcláusulas relativas. Trabalhar-se-á com um corpus composto por textos de alunos matriculados numa sexta sériedo ensino fundamental, objetivando, também, apontar a influência que a língua oral exerce sobre a escrita deles.A análise dos dados permite afirmar que o usuário da língua recorre a estratégias de estrutura o das relativas,contrariando a norma padr o: via de regra generaliza o “que” como um relativo universal e recorre a um pronomepessoal para desempenhar a fun o anafórica, ou deixa vazia a casa estrutural do pronome anafórico (anáfora zero).Desse modo, confirma-se nossa hipótese de que a anáfora pronominal funciona como um expediente produtivoda língua que torna mais fácil, no nível pragmático, o processamento da informa o. Foi possível concluir, ent o,que o emprego dos anafóricos em cláusulas relativizadas mereceria uma revis o no ensino da língua portuguesa no ensino fundamental.
Prosodic Correlation Between the Focusing Adverb Ozik ‘Only’ and Focus/Givenness in Korean  [cached]
LEE, Yong-cheol
Journal of Speech Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigates the prosodic correlation between the focusing adverb ozik ‘only’ andfocus/GIVENness in Korean. The goal is to test the issue of whether or not the element associated with ozikcan be dephrased in Korean. This question is answered by a perceptual experiment in which the pitchcontours of target sentences (i.e. Jeoneun ozik gichareul tamnida ‘I only take the train’ and Jeoneun ozikdaehanhanggongeul iyonghamnida ‘I only take Korean Air.’) are modified using Praat. The modifiedsentences are embedded in two competing contexts in which focus/GIVENness on the element associatedwith ozik (i.e. gichareul ‘the train’, daehanhanggongeul ‘Korean Air’) is elicited. The results reveal thatDoubleH (where both the focusing adverb and the object have prosodic prominence) is shown to be themost favored prosodic model when the element associated with ozik is focused in discourse. Conversely,OzikH (where the focusing adverb has prosodic prominence) is shown to be most favored when theelement associated with ozik is GIVEN. Therefore, we argue that the element associated with ozik can beeither prosodically prominent or dephrased depending on the discourse. This finding demonstrates thatdiscourse functions such as focus and GIVENness are not directly contingent on the lexical semantics of thefocusing adverb but instead are constrained by the discourse.
Readings from Asia: The Story of a Pronoun  [cached]
Gang Zhao
Cross-Currents : East Asian History and Culture Review , 2012,
Abstract: Huang Xingtao 黄兴涛, “Ta” zi de wenhua shi “她”字的文化史 [The Cultural History of the Chinese Character “ta” (the third person feminine pronoun)]. Fuzhou: Fujian Jiaoyu Chubanshe. 2009. In written Chinese, in contrast to English, the third-person feminine pronoun—the equivalent of “she”—was completely absent until the early twentieth century. In the late 1910s, when the voices of women’s liberation rang out in China, the Chinese character ta 她, for the third-person feminine singular pronoun, was invented. The invention and dissemination of the word ta not only reflected an ideological gendering of the Chinese script but also provoked heated academic and popular debates well into the 1930s. Thus, the history of ta provides a prism through which to explore modern Chinese history. Huang Xingtao’s “Ta”zi de wenhua shi is the first major work to survey the term’s creation.
Beyond Reference and Designation: On Interactive Implications of the Pronoun I in English
Katherine Hrisonopulo
Lodz Papers in Pragmatics , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10016-008-0006-2
Abstract: Using English-language material the paper aims to elaborate a theoretical model for the study of personal pronouns which could account for those uses of pronouns that go beyond their typical deictic (or referential) function of indicating speech-event participants. The proposed analysis focuses on the following two usage types of the pronoun I: (1) I say, there are lots of places to see there; (2) I tell you, John is the one to rely on. It is argued that despite idiomatic boundedness of the pronoun I in the expressions I say and I tell you the pronoun does contribute to the pragmatic effects of the utterances in (1) and (2), namely, the effects of attention seeking and persuasion respectively. It is assumed that these effects could be attributed to interactive implications of the pronoun I that typically emerge in situations of dialogic discourse. To account for interactive orientedness of the first-person pronoun the paper puts forward two interrelated hypotheses. First, it is supposed that the first-person pronoun functions as a sign which is indexed to four regular contexts: referential context, perceptual context, the context of the speaker's subjective experiences, the context of interaction. Second, it is hypothesized that interactive implications of the pronoun I are introduced into oral discourse due to the interplay of two or more of the postulated contexts. Both hypotheses are further substantiated with reference to examples of oral discourse drawn from English-language fiction.


心理学报 , 1996,
Abstract: This study examined the influence of sentence semantics, the parallel function of pronoun and its antecedent,and whether the pronoun is the subject of sentence on pronoun processing, The results showed that semantics is the primacy in pronoun assignment.The subjects generally select the referent of pronoun on the basis of semantic information. The parallel function of pronoun and its antecedent speeds pronoun assignment under certain conditions.The parallel function strategy was partially supported in the study, Whether the antecedent is the subject or is first mentioned in the clause affects the assignment and its rate to a certain extent.
Cooperation between Pronoun and Reference Resolution for Unrestricted Texts  [PDF]
Andrei Popescu-Belis,Isabelle Robba
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Anaphora resolution is envisaged in this paper as part of the reference resolution process. A general open architecture is proposed, which can be particularized and configured in order to simulate some classic anaphora resolution methods. With the aim of improving pronoun resolution, the system takes advantage of elementary cues about characters of the text, which are represented through a particular data structure. In its most robust configuration, the system uses only a general lexicon, a local morpho-syntactic parser and a dictionary of synonyms. A short comparative corpus analysis shows that narrative texts are the most suitable for testing such a system.
Acessibilidade e paralelismo na interpreta o do pronome sujeito e o contraste pro/pronome em português  [cached]
CORRêA Letícia Maria Sicuro
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 1998,
Abstract: O contraste pro/pronome em ora es coordenadas em português é aqui explorado de modo a distinguirem-se os procedimentos através dos quais formas pronominais sujeito s o interpretadas em diferentes contextos sintáticos e discursivos ? através de estratégias de sele o de um antecedente lingüístico ou da recupera o "automática" de uma representa o mantida particularmente ativada na memória de trabalho. Dois experimentos s o relatados. O primeiro testa a hipótese de que o vínculo sintático entre a ora o que contém a forma pronominal e a que contém seus possíveis antecedentes define condi es de processamento que favorecem o uso de um ou de outro procedimento de interpreta o. O segundo testa a hipótese de que o grau de ativa o de uma dada representa o na memória de trabalho (definido em rela o a um sistema que opera em três níveis) afeta o modo como o sujeito pronominal de ora es independentes é interpretado no discurso. Verifica-se que o contraste pro/ pronome pode ser re-estabelecido fora do ambito de senten as complexas uma vez que haja altera o local do foco da referência. A natureza deste contraste é discutida levando-se em conta as condi es de processamento nas quais este se manifesta.
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