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Analyzing Typical Characteristics of Central Zagros Potteries during the Chalcolithic Period  [PDF]
Behzad Balmaki, Kamal Aldin Niknami, Mohammad Reza Saeedi Harsini
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2013.12002
Abstract: Some 152 Chalcolithic sites were identified by the means of an archaeological surface survey in the Central Zagros mountainous region. As a whole, the analysis of data shows that the majority volume of finding pottery groups is classified as Red-Slipped Wares belonging to the Late Chalcolithic period. Beside this, the Black on Buff Wares and also the Impress Dalma Wares (Middle Chalcolithic) are the two types dominating the samples. The altitude of the settlements has risen by transition from the Early to the Late Chalcolithic periods. By Middle Chalcolithic we confronted different kinds of potteries indicating an improvement in the pottery making techniques or communicating with the neighboring regions. The Late Chalcolithic societies have witnessed a decline in the pottery types produced, but dramatic increases in the production rates. All factors show that in the Late Chalcolithic, population has been increased and a category of settlement systems have been propagated in the region which includes agricultural village-based pastoralism and nomadism.
First Direct Evidence of Chalcolithic Footwear from the Near Eastern Highlands  [PDF]
Ron Pinhasi,Boris Gasparian,Gregory Areshian,Diana Zardaryan,Alexia Smith,Guy Bar-Oz,Thomas Higham
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010984
Abstract: In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627–3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627–3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer's right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.
Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages  [PDF]
A.-M. Grimoud,S. Lucas,A. Sevin,P. Georges,O. Passarrius,F. Duranthon
International Journal of Dentistry , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/519691
Abstract: The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation. 1. Introduction Studies of dental caries over historical periods allow us to know and follow the evolution of the frequency of the disease and also its association with environmental resources, especially the relationship, now well established, between formation of caries, type of food consumed, and lifestyle [1–3]. Observations around the aetiology of carious lesions identify the role played by carbohydrates, with sugar [4] as the main factor involved in the increased prevalence of carious lesions, which arises with the cultivation of cereals and the possibility of cooking them, because cooking makes the carbohydrates soft, thus allowing them to stick to teeth, and, moreover, modifies the carbohydrate makeup by cutting the chains into shorter pieces [5, 6]. Overall, these modifications make the carbohydrate more cariogenic. Nevertheless, multiple factors appear to be involved in dental caries, including oral ecosystem compounds and salivary gland function [7].
Garófalo Fernández,Nicolás;
Revista Habanera de Ciencias M??dicas , 2008,
Abstract: to turn the daily life into an extraordinary process in behalf of the society and that even it being recognized by others, causes that the common man ascends to the condition of hero. in our institutions of health we found these kind of excellent personalities and we must recognize them if we want to win in a formation in values. for that reason we have had the privilege to examine the history of life of the surgery and angiology consultant professor summit of the knowledge, in science, teaching, the welfare work, with papers that contribute to the specialty and the popular education. one is doctor brunet pedroso,an active-duty within the military hospital central “carlos j. finlay”, of havana . its trajectory is example and stimulus. the present work is about recognition of those heroes.
EL CAUDAL DE LOS PUEBLOS SON SUS HEROES: DR. PEDRO ANTONIO BRUNET PEDROSO The wealth of population is its heroes: Dr. Antonio Brunet Pedroso  [cached]
Nicolás Garófalo Fernández
Revista Habanera de Ciencias M??dicas , 2008,
Abstract: Convertir la vida cotidiana en un proceso extraordinario en beneficio de la sociedad y que incluso ello sea reconocido por los semejantes hace que el hombre común ascienda a la condición de héroe. En nuestras instituciones de salud, encontramos a estas personalidades relevantes y debemos reconocerlas si queremos ganar en una formación en valores. Por ello, hemos tenido el privilegio de examinar la historia de la vida de un Profesor Consultante de Cirugía y Angiología, quien alcanza las cumbres del conocimiento, en la ciencia, la docencia y el trabajo asistencial, con obras que aportan a la especialidad y a la educación popular, y todo ello junto a la constitución de una familia honorable. Se trata del doctor Brunet Pedroso, en activo dentro del Hospital Militar Central Carlos J. Finlay, de Ciuda de La Habana. Su trayectoria es ejemplo y estímulo. Reconocer héroes los hace. Contribuir a este propósito, se encamina el presente trabajo. To turn the daily life into an extraordinary process in behalf of the society and that even it being recognized by others, causes that the common man ascends to the condition of hero. In our institutions of health we found these kind of excellent personalities and we must recognize them if we want to win in a formation in values. For that reason we have had the privilege to examine the history of life of the Surgery and Angiology Consultant Professor summit of the knowledge, in science, teaching, the welfare work, with papers that contribute to the specialty and the popular education. One is doctor Brunet Pedroso,an active-duty within the Military Hospital Central “Carlos J. Finlay”, of Havana . Its trajectory is example and stimulus. The present work is about recognition of those heroes.
Neolithic and Chalcolithic in Huecas (Toledo). The Tomb of El Castillejo. The 1998 Campaign
Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva,de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo,Barroso Bermejo, Rosa,Rojas Rodríguez-Malo, Juan Manuel
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 1999,
Abstract: The excavation of the tomb of El Castillejo, at Huecas, has provided bone remains of at least nine individuals. The arrangement of the corpses, the visibility of the tomb and its proximity to an important village and to artificial caves, raises numerous problems about the traditional interpretation of the Neolithic funerary world and the Chalcolithic in the Meseta. Its clear collectivism and the importance of the tomb relates this burial to the Megalithic culture, in spite of lacking large stone structures. The possible symbolic connection among the buried and an early dwelling structure, adds interest to the results of an investigation that we hope to continue. La excavación del túmulo del Castillejo, en Huecas, ha proporcionado restos óseos de al menos nueve individuos. La disposición de los cadáveres, la visibilidad del túmulo y su proximidad a un poblado importante y a otros enterramientos en cueva artificial, plantea numerosas cuestiones acerca de la interpretación tradicional del mundo funerario neolítico y calcolítico mesete o. Su claro colectivismo y la envergadura del túmulo relacionan este enterramiento con el megalitismo, pese a carecer de estructuras de esa índole. La posible conexión simbólica entre los enterrados y una subestructura habitacional, a ade interés a los resultados de una investigación que esperamos poder continuar.
L’esthétique surréaliste dans le champ et dans les discours  [cached]
David Vrydaghs
COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature , 2006, DOI: 10.4000/contextes.113
Abstract: Une question d’histoire littéraireNos recherches post-doctorales, dont nous livrons ici les premiers résultats, portent sur un point d’histoire littéraire : comment écrire l’histoire du groupe surréaliste fran ais sans exclure a priori de l’objet les dissidents et les concurrents du mouvement et, pour préciser, comment rendre compte de l’esthétique surréaliste sans considérer une fois pour toutes qu’elle est l’apanage du groupe constitué ni taire pour autant les oppositions entre surréalistes...
Le groupe surréaliste de Bucarest entre Paris et Bruxelles, 1945-1947 : une page d’histoire  [cached]
Monique Yaari
Synergies Canada , 2011,
Abstract: Le conflit qui eut lieu en 1947, par voie épistolaire et à coup d’expositions, entre—d’une part—le groupe surréaliste de Bucarest et le peintre surréaliste bruxellois, René Magritte, et—d’autre part—celui-ci et André Breton, chef de file du groupe surréaliste de Paris, est considéré ici comme révélateur d’une des multiples tensions qui ont traversé le mouvement surréaliste international. Au lendemain de la seconde guerre mondiale, par l’affrontement de sensibilités divergentes et de rhétoriques fort marquées, ce bref épisode témoigne d’un des moments les plus névralgiques de l’histoire européenne. En reconstituant cet épisode à partir du groupe bucarestois, encore peu connu, l’article le présente aux lecteurs.
Bell-beakers in the Cantabrian region: an archaeological phenomenon within the chalcolithic communities from northern Spain
Onta?ón Peredo, Roberto
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2003,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to approach the Bell-Beaker phenomenon not as an isolated manifestation but as a cultural element integrated into the socio-economic dynamics of the Chalcolithic societies. We discard here the descriptive study of material culture, i.e. the typological-comparative approach, highly developed in an eminently empiricist tradition of research and furthermore unnecessary for the progress of this work. First, we examine the archaeological evidence focusing on find contexts in order to adequately characterize the Bell-Beaker presence in Cantabria. Subsequently, a consideration on the involvement of the Bell Beaker components in the exchange models and the funerary practices of the Cantabrian Chalcolithic allows us to suggest several hypotheses concerning its participation in the socio-economic change processes documented in this spatial- temporal realm. The aim is to offer an alternative interpretation of this archaeological reality, that, despite its undeniable distinctiveness, when regarded in this way loses that phenomenal character and turns out to be a part of the interacting elements within a socio-economic formation immersed in a process of change. Este artículo pretende una aproximación al fenómeno campaniforme considerado no como una manifestación aislada, sino en su imbricación dentro de las estructuras y las dinámicas socioeconómicas de las sociedades calcolíticas del Cantábrico. Obviamos el estudio descriptivo y formal de los materiales, la aproximación tipológico-comparativa que, ya desarrollada en un marco de investigación eminentemente empirista, no resulta esencial para el progreso del trabajo. En primerlugar se examinan las evidenciasdocumentadas desde una perspectiva contextual, con el fin de proponer una adecuada caracterización de la presencia campaniforme en el registro cantábrico. A continuación, un análisis de la participación de los materiales campaniformes en los modelos de intercambio y las prácticasfunerarias del Calcolíticocantábrico permite plantear algunas hipótesis acerca de su intervención en los procesos de cambio socioeconómico detectados en ese ámbito espaciotemporal. Se trata, en definitiva, de ofrecer alternativas interpretativas en el estudio de esta realidad arqueológica; una manifestación que, a pesar de sus innegables especificidades, considerada de este modo pierde en gran parte ese carácter fenoménico y pasa a formar parte de la integración de elementos e instancias sociales y económicas que interactúan en la configuración de una formación económico-social inmersa en un proceso de cambio.
Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages
Avilova, Liudmila
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations. El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las primeras civilizaciones.
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