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Contamina??o salivar da extrusa em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementa??o
Gomes, S.P.;Le?o, M.I.;Valadares Filho, S.C.;Paulino, M.F.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352006000600032
Abstract: alterations on the levels of crude protein (cp), non-protein nitrogen compounds (nnp), neutral detergent fiber (ndf), acid detergent fiber (adf), lignin (lig), ash, calcium (ca), phosphorus (p), magnesium (mg), potassium (k) and sodium (na) of feeds used for steers, caused by the saliva contamination in the extrusa, were evaluated. five steers, fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were fed five diets, in five experimental periods. the treatments were: chopped elephantgrass (ce), elephantgrass obtained by hand-plucked (ces), brachiaria decumbens obtained by hand-plucked (cbs), tifton-85 bermudagrass haylage (ps), brachiaria decumbens hay (fb1), brachiaria decumbens hay and concentrate at 0.5% lw (fb2), and brachiaria decumbens hay and concentrate at 1.0% lw (fb3). the extrusa cp content was not affected (p>0.05) by saliva contamination. the nnp levels were overestimated (p<0.05) in the extrusa in 135.0%. the ndf levels were underestimated (p<0.05) in 3.4%. the adf and lig contents were overestimated (p<0.05) in extrusa samples, on average 11.0 and 44.0%, respectively. the mineral contamination was significant (p<0.05) for ash, p and na, and the levels were overestimated in 31.2, 116.7 and 3250.0%, respectively. the mg content was underestimated (p<0.05) in 15.4% in the extrusa.
Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf
Simioni, Carine;Valle, Cacilda Borges do;
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-70332011000100006
Abstract: the meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36) originated from somatic chromosome duplication of sexually reproducing diploid plants of brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. all the analyzed plants presented abnormalities related to polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronuclei during both meiotic divisions. however, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterized by regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents in diakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. these studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexual genitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the b. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility. intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of brachiaria, a problem observed with the interspecific hybrids produced so far.
Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf
Carine Simioni,Cacilda Borges do Valle
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36) originated from somatic chromosome duplication ofsexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities relatedto polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronucleiduring both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterizedby regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents indiakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexualgenitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility.Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observedwith the interspecific hybrids produced so far.
Disponibilidade, composi??o bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis
Aroeira, Luiz Januário Magalh?es;Paciullo, Domingos Sávio Campos;Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz;Morenz, Mirton José Frota;Saliba, Eloísa Sim?es;Silva, Janaína Januário da;Ducatti, Carlos;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2005000400014
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred holstein-zebu cows, in pasture with brachiaria decumbens cv. basilisk, stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. mineir?o and tree legumes. to estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. b. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while s. guianensis availability decreased linearly along the experimental period. dry matter intake was higher in may/2001 (1.9% body weight) and did not differ among other months (1.5% body weight). low dry matter intake values were related to low in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients (42.1% to 48.0%) and high neutral detergent fiber content (70.2% to 79.4%). dry matter intake was directly related to legume percentage in the pasture. this observation could indicate the potential of mixed pasture for improving nutritive value in dairy cattle diet.
Brachiaria decumbens supresses the initial growth of Coffea arabica
Dias, Guilherme Faus da Silva;Alves, Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar;Dias, Tomás Carneiro de Souza;
Scientia Agricola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162004000600003
Abstract: brachiaria decumbens is becoming one the most common weeds growing in young coffee orchards because, besides its fast growth and difficulty of control, new coffee orchards are usually established in pasture areas. in order to verify the effect of b. decumbens plant density on the early growth of coffee (coffea arabica l. cv. catuaí amarelo), a competition experiment was conducted under semi-controlled humidity conditions. soil collected in a typic haplustox was placed in 70 l asbestos cement boxes and one coffee seedling was planted in each box. the b. decumbens seedlings were transplanted to the boxes at the 2-4 leaf stage. treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeds m-2. the experimental period started 120 days after transplanting and the experimental design was organized as completely randomized blocks, with four replicates. all coffee plant parameters evaluated were negatively affected by the interference. the most sensitive characteristics were leaf area (41.8% reduction with 8 plants m-2, reaching 68.7% at a density of 60 plants m-2). therefore, at a density of 8 plants m-2 the reduction in leaf dry biomass was 41.4% compared with the check. at the density of 60 plants m-2 it was 72.8%. b. decumbens, at a density of 8 or more plants m-2, suppressed coffee plants during a growth period of 120 days.
Brachiaria decumbens supresses the initial growth of Coffea arabica  [cached]
Dias Guilherme Faus da Silva,Alves Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar,Dias Tomás Carneiro de Souza
Scientia Agricola , 2004,
Abstract: Brachiaria decumbens is becoming one the most common weeds growing in young coffee orchards because, besides its fast growth and difficulty of control, new coffee orchards are usually established in pasture areas. In order to verify the effect of B. decumbens plant density on the early growth of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Amarelo), a competition experiment was conducted under semi-controlled humidity conditions. Soil collected in a Typic Haplustox was placed in 70 L asbestos cement boxes and one coffee seedling was planted in each box. The B. decumbens seedlings were transplanted to the boxes at the 2-4 leaf stage. Treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeds m-2. The experimental period started 120 days after transplanting and the experimental design was organized as completely randomized blocks, with four replicates. All coffee plant parameters evaluated were negatively affected by the interference. The most sensitive characteristics were leaf area (41.8% reduction with 8 plants m-2, reaching 68.7% at a density of 60 plants m-2). Therefore, at a density of 8 plants m-2 the reduction in leaf dry biomass was 41.4% compared with the check. At the density of 60 plants m-2 it was 72.8%. B. decumbens, at a density of 8 or more plants m-2, suppressed coffee plants during a growth period of 120 days.
Saponins and Sapogenins from Brachiaria decumbens Stapf
Pires, Viviane S.;Taketa, Alexandre T. C.;Gosmann, Grace;Schenkel, Eloir P.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532002000200002
Abstract: four steroidal saponins and three sapogenins were identified from aerial parts of brachiaria decumbens. their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic means (1h and 13c nmr, hmbc, hmqc) as 3b-methoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1), diosgenin (2a), yamogenin (2b), 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-24(s)-ethyl-22e -dihydrocholesterol (3a), 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-24(r)-ethyl-22e -dihydrocholesterol (3b), dioscin (4a) and 3-o-{a-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[a-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ?2)]-b-d-glucopyranosyl}-25(s)-spirost-5-en-3 b-ol (4b). all these compounds were isolated for the first time from b. decumbens and compound 4b is described for the first time as far as we know.
Saponins and Sapogenins from Brachiaria decumbens Stapf  [cached]
Pires Viviane S.,Taketa Alexandre T. C.,Gosmann Grace,Schenkel Eloir P.
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2002,
Abstract: Four steroidal saponins and three sapogenins were identified from aerial parts of Brachiaria decumbens. Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic means (1H and 13C NMR, HMBC, HMQC) as 3beta-methoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1), diosgenin (2a), yamogenin (2b), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-24(S)-ethyl-22E -dihydrocholesterol (3a), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-24(R)-ethyl-22E -dihydrocholesterol (3b), dioscin (4a) and 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-25(S)-spirost-5-en-3 beta-ol (4b). All these compounds were isolated for the first time from B. decumbens and compound 4b is described for the first time as far as we know.
Comportamento ingestivo de bezerros em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens
Zanine, Anderson de Moura;Santos, Edson Mauro;Parente, Henrique Nunes;Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus;Cecon, Paulo Roberto;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000500031
Abstract: an experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of calves on brachiaria brizantha and brachiaria decumbens pastures, under continuous stocking with variable stocking rate. the experimental design was entirely randomized, with two treatments (two pastures), and five replicates per treatment. the experimental period lasted 30 days, consisting of days 20 for adaptation of animals and 10 for behavioral evaluations that consisted of three periods of 24:00h each, in intervals of five days. the calves spent less time grazing brachiaria brizantha pasture (9,8h) than they did on the brachiaria decumbens (11,3h). different rumination times had been observed, 6,8 and 6,4 h for the animals grazing brachiaria brizantha and brachiaria decumbens, respectively. we suggested that the selective behavior of the calves on the brachiaria decumbens made them to eat good quality grass, thus they spent a similar rumination time to that observed for brachiaria brizantha. the number of bites per minute was inferior for the brachiaria decumbens, 31,2h, when compared with brachiaria brizantha (the mean bite rate was 34,9 bites per minute). the calves had a larger daily gain to brachiaria brizantha (390g day-1) than they had to brachiaria decumbens (340g day-1).
Comportamento ingestivo de bezerros em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens  [cached]
Zanine Anderson de Moura,Santos Edson Mauro,Parente Henrique Nunes,Ferreira Daniele de Jesus
Ciência Rural , 2006,
Abstract: Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de bezerros em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de lota o contínua com taxa de lota o variável. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois pastos representando os tratamentos, cada um com cinco repeti es. O período experimental foi de 30 dias, sendo 20 para adapta o dos animais e 10 para avalia es, que consistiram de três, com dura o de 24h cada, em intervalos de cinco dias. Os bezerros pastejaram menos tempo no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha, com tempo de 9,75h, enquanto que o pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens foi de 11,3h. Comportamento diferente foi observado para o tempo de rumina o: 6,8 e 6,4 para os pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, respectivamente. O número de bocados por minuto foi menor para a Brachiaria decumbens, 31,15, enquanto que, para a Brachiaria brizantha, os bezerros pastejaram com uma taxa de bocados de 34,91 bocados por minuto. Os bezerros tiveram um ganho de peso médio diário superior no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha (390g dia-1), enquanto que, para a Brachiaria decumbens, o ganho diário foi de 340g dia-1.
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