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Eradication of Helicobacter pylori increases childhood growth and serum acylated ghrelin levels  [cached]
Yao-Jong Yang,Bor-Shyang Sheu,Hsiao-Bai Yang,Cheng-Chan Lu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i21.2674
Abstract: AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected children have reduced body weight (BW) and height (BH) growth, and if H. pylori eradication may restore growth while improving serum acylated ghrelin. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study with one-year follow-up enrolled 1222 children aged 4 to 12 years old into an observation cohort (18 with and 318 without H. pylori) and intervention cohort (75 with and 811 without). The 7-d triple therapy was used for eradication in the intervention cohort. The net increases of BW and BH as well serum acylated ghrelin after one-year follow-up were compared between successful eradicated H. pylori-infected children and controls. RESULTS: In the observation cohort, the H. pylori-infected children had lower z score of BW (-1.11 ± 0.47 vs 0.35 ± 0.69, P = 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (0.06 ± 0.45 vs 0.44 ± 0.73, P = 0.02) at enrollment and lower net BW gain after one-year follow-up (3.3 ± 2.1 kg vs 4.5 ± 2.4 kg, P = 0.04) than the non-infected controls. In the intervention cohort, the H. pylori-infected children had lower z score of BMI (0.25 ± 1.09 vs 0.68 ± 0.87, P = 0.009) and serum acylated ghrelin levels (41.8 ± 35.6 pg/mL vs 83.6 ± 24.2 pg/mL, P < 0.001) than the non-infected controls. In addition to restoring decreased serum ghrelin levels (87.7 ± 38.0 pg/mL vs 44.2 ± 39.0 pg/mL, P < 0.001), the H. pylori-infected children with successful eradication had higher net gains (P < 0.05) and increase of z scores (P < 0.05) of both BW and BH as compared with non-infected controls after one-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: H. pylori-infected children are associated with low serum acylated ghrelin and growth retardation. Successful eradication of H. pylori restores ghrelin levels and increases growth in children.
Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on serum ghrelin and obestatin levels  [cached]
Celal Ulasoglu,Banu Isbilen,Levent Doganay,Filiz Ozen
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i15.2388
Abstract: AIM: To investigate changes in serum ghrelin and obestatin levels before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. METHODS: A total of 92 patients presenting with symptoms of dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. Upper endoscopy was performed on all patients and used to diagnose H. pylori infection according to the presence of characteristic histopathological findings; seventy patients were diagnosed with H. pylori infection and the remaining 22 non-infected patients were classified as healthy controls. H. pylori eradication was accomplished by administering the classical triple therapy drug regimen, consisting of lansoprazole 30 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid, and clarithromycin 500 mg tid for 14 d. The eradication of H. pylori was assessed with C14-urea breath test, which was performed at eight weeks after treatment. Levels of serum active ghrelin and obestatin were assessed at beginning of the study (prior to treatment) and after eight weeks. The levels were comparatively analyzed between the H. pylori negative control group, the H. pylori eradicated group, and the H. pylori non-eradicated group. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients, 50 females and 42 males with a mean age of 38.2 ± 11.9 years (range: 19-64), were analyzed. H. pylori eradication success was achieved in 74.3% (52/70) of H. pylori positive patients. The initial levels of ghrelin in the H. pylori positive and control cases were 63.6 ± 19.8 pg/mL and 65.1 ± 19.2 pg/mL (P = 0.78), respectively, and initial obestatin levels were 771 ± 427 pg/mL and 830 ± 296 pg/mL (P = 0.19), respectively. The difference between the initial levels and the week 8 levels of ghrelin and obestatin in the control group was insignificant [4.5% (P = 0.30) and -0.9% (P = 0.65), respectively]. The difference between the initial and week 8 levels of ghrelin and obestatin in the H. pylori non-eradicated group were also insignificant [0.9% (P = 0.64) and 5.3% (P = 0.32), respectively]. The H. pylori eradicated group had a greater change in obestatin levels when compared to the control and the non-eradicated groups (148 ± 381 pg/mL vs -12 ± 138 pg/mL and -72.8 ± 203 pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.015), while decreases in ghrelin levels were insignificant (-7.2 pg/mL vs -1.4 pg/mL and -1.9 pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.52). The ghrelin/obestatin ratio for the initial and week 8 levels changed significantly in only the H. pylori eradicated group (0.11 vs 0.08, respectively, P = 0.015). For overweight patients (as designated by body mass index), we observed significant increases in obestatin levels in the eradicated group a
Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection  [cached]
Hiroyuki Osawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.
Relationship Between Plasma Ghrelin and Leptin Concentrations on Food Intake and Feeding Frequency in Scheduled Meal-Fed Male Lambs During Long Term
D. Udum,M. Tanriverdi,N. Gunes,M. Ogan,H. Ustuner
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/vr.2012.77.81
Abstract: Ghrelin, a novel acylated peptide is the endogenous ligand for Growth Hormone Secretagogue (GHS) receptor. Ghrelin has been reported to increase feed intake and BW gain. Ghrelin also has been identified in bovine oxyntic glands of the abomasum and in the stomach of nonruminant animals this peptide may also function in the regulation of feeding or energy balance in ruminants. For this reason; the lambs were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups of 4 animals each according to the administration rhythm of the ration and to the ghrelin treatment: in the Group I, animals were fed ad libitum, in the Group II, they were also fed ad libitum and were intravenously injected with the ghrelin twice a week, in the Group III they were fed once a day (09:00) and in the Group IV, the lambs were fed twice a day (09:00 and 16:00). The daily food allowance was adjusted to metabolic energy in each day and an average body weight of 43 kg was maintained. Blood samples collected 30 min before feeding (08:30) and 60 min after feeding (10:00) at were analyzed for plasma ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin levels. Researchers have collected the blood samples 15 days intervals until 45 days. There was the highest peak values of ghrelin and leptin levels at the second period in the whole groups but there was no significant changes between sampling times in the groups. Researchers have obtained feed consumption, weight gain and feed conversion of each lambs and each groups. Researchers determined that systemic (i.v.) injection of ghrelin might affect feed consumption and body weight but not affect feed conversion rate.
Relationship Between Plasma Ghrelin and Leptin Concentrations on Food Intake and Feeding Frequency in Scheduled Meal-Fed Male Lambs During Long Term
D. Udum,M. Tanriverdi,N. Gunes,M. Ogan,H. Ustuner
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/vr.2012.54.58
Abstract: Ghrelin, a novel acylated peptide is the endogenous ligand for Growth Hormone Secretagogue (GHS) receptor. Ghrelin has been reported to increase feed intake and BW gain. Ghrelin also has been identified in bovine oxyntic glands of the abomasum and in the stomach of nonruminant animals. This peptide may also function in the regulation of feeding or energy balance in ruminants. For this reason, the lambs were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups of 4 animals each according to the administration rhythm of the ration and to the ghrelin treatment: in the Group I, animals were fed ad libitum, in the Group II they were also fed ad libitum and were intravenously injected with the ghrelin twice a week, in the Group III they were fed once a day (09:00) and in the Group IV, the lambs were fed twice a day (09:00 and 16:00). The daily food allowance was adjusted to metabolic energy in each day and an average body weight of 43 kg was maintained. Blood samples collected 30 min before feeding (08:30) and 60 min after feeding (10:00) at were analyzed for plasma ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin levels. Researchers have collected the blood samples 15 days intervals until 45 days. There was the highest peak values of ghrelin and leptin levels at the second period in the whole groups but there was no significant changes between sampling times in the groups. Researchers have obtained feed consumption, weight gain and feed conversion of each lambs and each groups.
Endocrine impact of Helicobacter pylori: Focus on ghrelin and ghrelin o-acyltransferase  [cached]
Penny L Jeffery, Michael A McGuckin, Sara K Linden
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: Ghrelin is predominantly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment and is octanoylated by the recently discovered ghrelin o-acyltransferase (GOAT) before secretion into the bloodstream. This octanoylation is essential for many of the biological properties of ghrelin including appetite stimulation and anti-inflammatory properties as only the acylated form of ghrelin binds to the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Given the gastric location of ghrelin production, it is perhaps not surprising that insult to the gastric mucosa affects circulating ghrelin levels in humans. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than fifty percent of the world’s population and once established within the gastric mucosa, can persist for life. Infection is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy and ulceration, reduced appetite and a lower body mass index (BMI). The large majority of studies investigating levels of circulating ghrelin and ghrelin expression in the stomach in patients with H. pylori infection indicate that the bacterium has a negative impact on ghrelin production and/or secretion. Eradication of infection restores ghrelin, improves appetite and increases BMI in some studies, however, a causative relationship between H. pylori-associated serum ghrelin decline and food intake and obesity has not been established. Most studies measure total ghrelin in the circulation although the measurement of the ratio of acyl/total ghrelin gives a clearer indication that the ghrelin acylation process is altered during infection and atrophy. GOAT is essential for the production of biologically-active, acyl ghrelin and the impact of H. pylori on GOAT expression and activity will be highly informative in the future.
Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin levels in children  [cached]
Zhao-Hui Deng,Bo Chu,Ya-Zhen Xu,Bin Zhang
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i36.5096
Abstract: AIM: To compare ghrelin levels in plasma and gastric mucosa before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were enrolled in this study. H. pylori infection was confirmed by positive bacterial culture results. All of the children received triple H. pylori eradication therapy (a 2 wk course of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin). The children were divided into two groups based on the success of the H. pylori treatment: group 1 (eradicated) - patients who had a negative 13C-urea breath test 2 mo after the end of therapy; and group 2 (non-eradicated) - patients who had a positive 13C-urea breath test. Plasma ghrelin, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the body mass index were evaluated in both groups before and after the H. pylori treatment. The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The expression of gastric ghrelin mRNA was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 50 children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were treated with triple H. pylori eradication therapy. The mean age of the children was 5.52 ± 0.83 years, and there were 28 males and 22 females. Among the 50 H. pylori-positive children, 30 successfully achieved eradication, and 20 did not. The mean plasma ghrelin levels of group 1 were 22.17 ± 1.73 ng/L and 26.59 ± 2.05 ng/L before and after the treatment, respectively, which was a significant increase (P = 0.001). However, the mean plasma ghrelin level of group 2 before and after the H. pylori treatment was 21.34 ± 2.40 ng/L and 22.24 ± 2.10 ng/L (P = 0.785). The plasma ghrelin levels increased substantially after treatment in group 1 but showed only minor changes in group 2. Similarly, the gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 1 before treatment was 2.84 ± 0.08. After treatment, the level was 3.11 ± 0.65, which was significantly different (P = 0.023). The gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 2 did not change significantly during the treatment (2.82 ± 0.44 vs 2.79 ± 0.31, P = 0.875). The plasma ghrelin and gastric ghrelin mRNA levels in group 1 increased substantially after the treatment but did not do so in group 2. In addition, the body mass index the two groups did not differ significantly 2 mo before and after the H. pylori treatment. CONCLUSION: H. pylori eradication increases the plasma and tissue ghrelin levels in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.
Helicobacter pylori infection and circulating ghrelin levels - A systematic review
Chidi V Nweneka, Andrew M Prentice
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-7
Abstract: We reviewed original English language studies on humans reporting circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori infected and un-infected participants; and circulating ghrelin levels before and after H pylori eradication. Meta-analyses were conducted for eligible studies by combining study specific estimates using the inverse variance method with weighted average for continuous outcomes in a random effects model.Seventeen out of 27 papers that reported ghrelin levels in H pylori positive and negative subjects found lower circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori positive subjects; while 10 found no difference. A meta-analysis of 19 studies with a total of 1801 participants showed a significantly higher circulating ghrelin concentration in H pylori negative participants than in H pylori positive participants (Effect estimate (95%CI) = -0.48 (-0.60, -0.36)). However, eradicating H pylori did not have any significant effect on circulating ghrelin levels (Effect estimate (95% CI) = 0.08 (-0.33, 0.16); Test for overall effect: Z = 0.67 (P = 0.5)).We conclude that circulating ghrelin levels are lower in H pylori infected people compared to those not infected; but the relationship between circulating ghrelin and eradication of H pylori is more complex.The relationship between ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide secreted primarily by the oxyntic cells of the stomach [1] and involved in body mass regulation, and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), a bacterium that colonises the stomach, has remained controversial. The first report suggesting an association between the two was that by Nwokolo et al [2] who examined the effect of H pylori eradication on plasma ghrelin levels in 12 healthy adult male and female subjects. They reported that eradicating H pylori from the subjects was associated with an increase in plasma ghrelin levels. At about the same time, Gockel et al [3] reported that H pylori had no effect on plasma ghrelin levels in a study of 39 age- and BMI-matched H pylori positive and
Diurnal Intermittent Fasting during Ramadan: The Effects on Leptin and Ghrelin Levels  [PDF]
Mohammed A. Alzoghaibi, Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal, Munir M. Sharif, Ahmed S. BaHammam
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092214
Abstract: We aimed to assess the effect of Islamic intermittent fasting, during and outside of Ramadan, on plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin while controlling for several potential confounding variables. Eight healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 26.6±4.9 years reported to the sleep disorders center (SDC) at King Saud University on four occasions: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. During BLF, there were significant reductions in plasma leptin concentrations at 22:00 and 02:00 compared with the baseline concentrations (at 22:00: 194.2±177.2 vs. 146.7±174.5; at 02:00: 203.8±189.5 vs. 168.1±178.1; p<0.05). During Ramadan, there was a significant reduction in plasma leptin levels at 22:00 (194.2±177.2 vs. 132.6±130.4, p<0.05). No significant difference in plasma ghrelin concentrations was detected during the BL, BLF, or Ramadan periods. Cosinor analyses of leptin and ghrelin plasma levels revealed no significant changes in the acrophases of the hormones during the three periods. The nocturnal reduction in plasma leptin levels during fasting may be the result of the changes in meal times during fasting.
THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON FOOD INTAKE AND HUNGER: RELATIONSHIP WITH ACYLATED GHRELIN AND LEPTIN  [cached]
Serife Vatansever-Ozen,Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez,Guler Bugdayci,Guclu Ozen
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05). The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05) interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management
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