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Metabolitos secundarios y actividad antibacteriana in vitro de extractos de hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. (mara ón) Secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew tree) leaves
Yordan Martínez Aguilar,Fernando Soto Rodríguez,Manuel Almeida Saavedra,Robinson Hermosilla Espinosa
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: las hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. (mara ón) tienen contenidos óptimos de nutrientes; se ha utilizado como antidiarreico y nutracéutico en animales, sin embargo, la caracterización fitoquímica y antimicrobiana de sus extractos son insuficientes. Objetivo: determinar los metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de extractos de hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. Métodos: del polvo de las hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. se obtuvo inicialmente el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 %. Se realizó tamizaje fitoquímico y pruebas de calidad de las preparaciones farmacéuticas. Se determinó la actividad antibacteriana (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella entérica, Shigella sp.) de tres diluciones del extracto seco (50, 100 y 200 mg/mL) de la tintura al 20 % y de los extractos n-hexánico, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo (Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella entérica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacter aerogenes), con posterior caracterización fitoquímica. Resultados: en el extracto fluido y en la tintura al 20 % se detectaron cumarinas y otros metabolitos como saponinas, flavonoides, azúcares reductores, aminoácidos libres, triterpenos/esteroides, fenoles/taninos. El índice de refracción, la densidad, el pH y los sólidos totales mostraron resultados similares para el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 %. Además, para estos indicadores no se encontraron diferencias significativas 6 meses después. El extracto seco mostró actividad antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus, con los mayores halos de inhibición para la dilución de 200 mg/mL. Asimismo, el extracto de acetato de etilo indicó el menor crecimiento de esta bacteria patógena, según los halos de inhibición. En los extractos, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo, se determinaron cumarinas y azúcares reductores. Conclusiones: en el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 % de hojas de Anacardium occidentale se detectaron mayormente cumarinas y su calidad no se afectó durante 6 meses. Los extractos n-hexánico, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo mostraron actividad estafilocócica in vitro, también se detectaron azúcares reductores y cumarinas en los dos últimos extractos. Introduction: the leaves of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree) have optimal contents of nutrients and have been used as antidiarrheal and nutraceutical in animals; however, the phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial of the extracts are insufficient. Objective: to determine secondary metabolites and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Ana
Composición química y tamizaje fitoquímico del polvo de hojas y reto?os del Anacardium occidentale L. (mara?ón)
Martínez Aguilar,Yordan; Martínez Yero,Orlando; Escalona Arias,Ariel; Soto Rodríguez,Fernando; Valdivié Navarro,Manuel;
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2012,
Abstract: introduction: the chemical composition and phytochemical screening of a medicinal plant can define its benefits. the literature covers information about these determinations on the fruit of anacardium occidentale l. but little information was found about its leaves and shoots. objective: to determine the chemical composition and phytochemical screening in the leaf and shoot powder from anacardium occidentale l. methods: bromatological composition, some carbohydrates, saponifiable material, phytosterols, minerals, fatty acids and phytochemical screening were determined in leaf and shoot powder from anacardium occidentale l., using techniques approved by the ministry of public health, official methods of analysis, gas chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography. results: the leaf and shoot powder from anacardium occidentale l. showed an acceptable content of dry matter, crude protein, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated octadecenoic, gadoleic larger amounts were detected in the powder. there was a significant concentration of potassium and manganese trace mineral. in the phytochemical screening, the ether extract showed no alkaloids, the coumarins and quinones were detected in the ethanol and aqueous extract, respectively. anthocyanidins, triterpenes or steroids and tannins were observed in the ethanol extract. also, in both extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) flavanoids and saponins were detected. conclusions: according to the chemical composition and the presence of beneficial secondary metabolites, it is recommended to study the use of leaf and shoot powder from a. occidentale in humans and animals as a nutraceutic or therapeutical agent.
Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in four populations in Malawi
FM Chipojola, WF Mwase, MB Kwapata, JM Bokosi, JP Njoloma, MF Maliro
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: An assessment of the genetic diversity in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) would assist in planning for future selection of good high yield germplasm that will produce nuts of high quality and fetch high prices on the market. The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 accessions of cashew collected from 4 populations (Liwonde, Nkope, Kaputu and Chikwawa) was characterized using quantitative and qualitative traits. The study results have revealed similarity values between 35 to 66%. Analyses of genetic similarity based on unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) grouped the 40 accessions into 4 clusters with 14 sub-clusters and the principal component analysis revealed that apple length, apple nut ratio, nut weight, kernel weight, out turn percent and flower sex ratio accounted for most of the variation. The variation could be attributed to genetic history, ecogeographic origin and selection for desired agronomic traits by farmers. Accessions LW41, NE2, NE4, CH18 and PAL26 showed potential for selection in nut and kernel weight and out turn percent suggesting that this could be a valuable source of variation for tree improvement programme in cashew nuts. The findings suggest availability of broad genetic base that could be exploited for future cashew selection and breeding in Malawi.
Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
Azevedo, Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de;Crisóstomo, Jo?o Ribeiro;Almeida, Francisco Célio Guedes;Rossetti, Adroaldo Guimar?es;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47571998000300019
Abstract: the present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (anacardium occidentale l.). data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at pacajus, ceará, experimental station of embrapa agroindústria tropical. the characters studied were plant height (ph), north-south and east-west canopy spreads (nss, ews), and primary and secondary branch numbers (pbn, sbn). all genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. the 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from nss or ews since correlations between them were high. correlations between ph and sbn were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in sbn. ph and sbn showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.
Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)  [cached]
Azevedo Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de,Crisóstomo Jo?o Ribeiro,Almeida Francisco Célio Guedes,Rossetti Adroaldo Guimar?es
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 1998,
Abstract: The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH), North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS), and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN). All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.
Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae)
C.E Agedah, D.D.S Bawo, B.L Nyananyo
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae), on two common human pathogens of clinical importance, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. All test organisms were identified to be sensitive to the plant extract, although zones of inhibition were about 50% of those observed using the commercial antibiotic, ampicillin. In terms of sensitivity, S. aureus, a Gram +ve organism, without an outer membrane in its cell wall was more sensitive relative to E. coli, a Gram –ve organism, which possesses an outer membrane in its cell wall. The degree of sensitivity could probably be due to this outer membrane which when present prevents a substantial amount of the extract from making contact with the cell. The antimicrobial properties of A. occidentale are derived from the presence of a polyphenol, anacardic acid and other compounds, tatrols and tanins. Therefore, it is suggestive of the fact that extracts could be used as an antibiotic especially in poor communities.
Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
OM Aliyu, JA Awopetu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations revealed a diploid and haploid chromosomes of 2n = 42 and n = 21 respectively. The karyotypes were mostly symmetric, composed mainly of metacentric pairs and several submetacentrics. Similarity in the morphology, number and behavior of the chromosomes in the accessions from different populations or origin attests to the degree of genetic closeness of the selections. This probably indicates high potential for use as parents in the breeding and improvement of cashew with very limited cross-incompatibility barriers (free gene exchange). Polymorphism in chromosome number was not recorded among these cashew selections.
Oil point pressure of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) kernels
B.S. Ogunsina,O.K. Owolarafe,G.A. Olatunde
International Agrophysics , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of moisture content (4, 6, and 8%), heating temperature (70, 85, 100, and 115oC) and heating time (15, 25, 35 and 45 min) on the oil point pressure of coarsely ground and finely ground cashew kernel aggregates were investigated using a laboratory press. For aggregates it was observed that oil point pressure decreased significantly with increase in moisture content, heating temperature and heating time. The lowest oil point pressure values obtained were 0.1572 MPa (for fine cashew kernel aggregates at a moisture content of 4% heated at 115 °C for 45 min) and 0.1664 MPa (for coarse cashew kernel aggregates at a moisture content of 6 % heated at 100 °C for 45 min). For both particle sizes at moisture content >8 % and heating temperature >100oC, the dead weight of the hydraulic press was sufficient to bring oil out of the oil bearing cells.
Bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.) during the ripening of early dwarf cashew clones
Lopes, M?nica Maria de Almeida;Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcantara de;Moura, Carlos Farley Herbster;Enéas Filho, Joaquim;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542012000300008
Abstract: lately, tropical fruit consumption has increased due to a higher knowledge of its nutritional and therapeutic value. the aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of cashew apples from different early dwarf clones during their ripening. the clones analyzed included: ccp 76, ccp 09, brs 189 and brs 265 in seven ripening stages. they were analyzed for vitamin c, total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, yellow flavonoids and polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity. clone brs 265 ripe cashew apple presented the highest vitamin c content (279.37 mg x 100 g-1). the ripe brs 189 cashew apple is colored bright red, and its total anthocyanin content was the highest (21.16 mg x 100 g-1). the yellow flavonoids content was higher for ripe ccp 76 and brs 189 cashew apples with 56.32 and 50.75 mg x 100 g-1, respectively. the highest levels of extrable polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were observed in ccp 09 in the first five ripening stages. the antioxidant activity of cashew apples (anacardium occidentale l.) is mainly attributed to polyphenol content (r = 0.90; p < 0.01), and, therefore, they may be considered relevant sources of antioxidant compounds, which are necessary for human health. cashew apples are consumed fresh which confers direct benefits for human health and present high potential for the development of new products with functional properties.
Activity of Zymomonas mobilis on ethanol products made of cashew nut apple (Anacardium occidentale) with different sources of nitrogen
AKHMAD MUSTOFA,SURANTO
Nusantara Bioscience , 2009,
Abstract: Mustofa A, Suranto. 2009. Activity of Zymomonas mobilis on ethanol production made of cashew nut apple (Anacardium occidentale) with different sources of nitrogen. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 105-109. This research is aimed at identifying Zymomonas mobilis in producing ethanol through batch fermentation process (in 24, 48 and 72 hours) using cashewnut apple extract (red, green and yellow variety) and urea, ammonium sulphate, extract of green peanut sprout and extract koro (Mucuna pruriens) as sources of nitrogen. The research showed that green cashewnut extract with ammonium sulphate in 24 hours of fermentation produced ethanol in optimum result. This treatment had pH of 5.87, 7.64 g/100 mL of sugar (with 48.44% of consumption), 8.0x107 amount of bacterium (μ = 0.154) and production of ethanol equal to 33.02 g/L (Ye = 90.19%).
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