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Mould Contamination of ready-to-eat cereal-based foods retailed in lesotho with special reference to toxigenicAspergillus flavus
S Mohale, J Allotey
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Samples belonging to four different brands (Instant Morvite , E-Papa , Ace Instant Porridge and Roasted Morvite ) of ready-to-eat fortified cereal-based foodstuffs imported from the Republic of South Africa were bought from different retail outlets in the Roma valley, Lesotho and examined for contamination with moulds. All (100%) of Roasted Morvite and E-Papa examined were contaminated with fungi. The greatest average fungal load (1.33 × 105) was recorded on Roasted Morvite samples. Although all the E-papa samples were contaminated, the upper limit average mould load (1.0 × 104) was the lowest compared to other brands that were analysed. A total of 226 isolates belonging to five different genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Wallemia and unidentified genus) were recovered. For each of the brands assessed, average mould counts for some samples were above maximum permissible limits (103 CFU/g) established by World Food Programme guidelines for fortified blended foods. Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates exhibited greatest fungal population densities, 52.7%, 36.3%, respectively. Wallemia was the least frequently isolated genus in this study; only four isolates (1.8%) recovered from all the samples investigated belonged to this genus. Of the Aspergillus species isolated, A. niger had the greatest relative density (39.5%) followed by A. flavus (37.8%), while Aspergillus amstelodami and unidentified Aspergillus species had the lowest. Of the 22 A. flavus isolates tested for sclerotia production potential, 18 produced large sclerotia with average diameter > 400.02±82.61 on Czapek solution, agar. Ten (56%) of these isolates were toxigenic as evidenced by formation of a blue fluorescence on the reverse of the plates when observed under UV (365 nm). It was concluded that the detection of above -permissible limits levels of moulds and aflatoxigenic fungi in some samples analysed presents a risk to consumers’ health. It is, therefore, suggested that a statutory, independent and science-based body dedicated to protecting public health and consumer interest in the area of food safety and hygiene be established. The main function of such a body would be to take all reasonable steps to ensure that food produced, distributed or marketed in Lesotho meets the highest standards of food safety and hygiene available.
Origanum vulgare L. essential oil as inhibitor of potentially toxigenic Aspergilli
Mitchell, Teresa Cristina;Stamford, Tania Lúcia Montenegro;Souza, Evandro Leite de;Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira;Carmo, Egberto Santos;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000300029
Abstract: origanum vulgare l. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation. in this study, the effect of o. vulgare essential on the growth of a. flavus, a. parasiticus, a. fumigatus, a. terreus and a. ochraceus was assessed. the essential oil had a significant inhibitory effect on all assayed fungi. mic was 0.6 μl.ml-1 for all fungi, while mfc was in the range of 1.25-2.5 μl.ml-1. the radial mycelial growth of a. flavus and a. parasiticus was strongly inhibited over 14 days at 0.6, 1.25 and 2.5 μl.ml-1 of oil in solid medium. the mycelial mass of all fungi was inhibited over 90% at 0.6 and 0.3 μl.ml-1 in liquid medium, while it was 100% at 1.25 μl.ml-1. the oil in a range of concentrations (0.6 to 2.5 μl.ml-1) was effective in inhibiting the viability and spores germination in a short time of exposure. the main morphological changes caused by the essential oil in a. parasiticus observed under light microscopy were absence of conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation, and disrupted cell structure. these results demonstrated that o. vulgare essential oil produced a significant fungitoxic effect supporting its possible rational use as anti-mould compound in food conservation.
Assessment and Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors as Tools to Assist in Optimal Product Component Selection for the Development of Packs of Ready-to-Eat Mixed Salads and for the Non-Destructive Monitoring of in-Pack Oxygen Levels Using Chilled Storage  [PDF]
Andreas W. Hempel,Maurice G. O'Sullivan,Dmitri B. Papkovsky,Joseph P. Kerry
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2020213
Abstract: Optical oxygen sensors were used to ascertain the level of oxygen consumed by individual salad leaves for optimised packaging of ready-to-eat (RTE) Italian salad mixes during refrigerated storage. Seven commonly found leaves in Italian salad mixes were individually assessed for oxygen utilisation in packs. Each leaf showed varying levels of respiration throughout storage. Using the information obtained, an experimental salad mix was formulated (termed Mix 3) which consisted of the four slowest respiring salad leaves—Escarole, Frisee, Red Batavia, Lollo Rosso. Mix 3 was then compared against two commercially available Italian salads; Mix 1 (Escarole, Frisee, Radicchio, Lollo Rosso) and Mix 2 (Cos, Frisee, Radicchio, Lollo Rosso). Optical sensors were used to non-destructively monitor oxygen usage in all mixes throughout storage. In addition to oxygen consumption, all three salad mixes were quality assessed in terms of microbial load and sensorial acceptability. In conclusion, Mix 3 was found to consume the least amount of oxygen over time, had the lowest microbial load and was most sensorially preferred ( p < 0.05) in terms of overall appearance and acceptability. This study clearly shows the potential that oxygen sensors possess in terms of assisting in the optimised development of commercial RTE salad products.
APLICACIóN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIóN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS  [cached]
Auris Damely García Méndez
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2008,
Abstract: El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa), zanahoria (Daucus carota L.), radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) y escarola (Cichorium endivia L.), destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos. The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa); carrot (Daucus carota L); Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L) and endive (Cichorium endivia L).“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1oC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.
Occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in raw, processed, and ready-to-eat seafood and seafood products
Thararat Chitov
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: This study investigated the occurrence (by means of the presence-absence test) and level (by means of a plate count technique) of selected potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in processed and ready-to-eat seafood, and some raw seafood normally used as raw materials or ingredients in these products, that were commercially available in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The level of Vibrio in raw seafood was found to range from 50 to 104 cfu/g. V. alginolyticus was the most frequently found species, followed by V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, V. mimicus, and V. vulnificus, in that order. Processed and ready-to-eat products were contaminated with at least one of the potentially pathogenic vibrios at significant frequencies (25 and 17.5 % of samples, respectively), with the level as high as 103 to 104 per gram in some samples. Incidences of vibrios revealed by the presence-absence test were significantly higher than those revealed by the plate count assay. These data point to the hazard potential relating to Vibrio in processed and ready-to-eat seafood and the need to strictly apply preventive measures against Vibrio gastroenteritis through consumption of these food products. They also suggest that analytical methods used in food safety evaluation in relation to potentially hazardous Vibrio species should be carefully considered.
Antifungal activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extract on the growth of Fusarium and Penicillium species isolated from food
Koci?-Tanackov Sun?ica D.,Dimi? Gordana R.,Tanackov Ilija J.,Pejin Du?anka J.
Hemijska Industrija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/hemind110614073k
Abstract: The effect of the oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L.) on the growth of Fusarium and Penicillium species isolated from cakes and ready-for-use fresh salads from different kinds of vegetables was investigated. Contents of the active component of extract were identified by GC-MS and they include: carvacrol (34.2%), carvone (18.5%), p-cimene (8.05%), thymol (3.74%). The oregano extract showed the ability to reduce mould growth at all applied concentrations. Stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of Penicillium species, contrary to Fusarium, was determined. At extract concentration of 2.5 mL/100 mL, growth of P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum and P. brevicompactum was completely inhibited during 14 days of incubation. At the same concentration, growth of Fusarium proliferatum was inhibited by 81.71%, F. oxysporum by 85.84%, F. verticillioides by 86.50%, P. chrysogenum by 86.2% and F. subglutinans by 88.85%.
Bacteriological Quality and Risk Factors for Contamination of Raw Mixed Vegetable Salads Served in Collective Catering in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)  [PDF]
Evelyne Toe, Adjéhi Dadié, Etienne Dako, Guillaume Loukou
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.76033
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of raw mixed vegetable salads served in collective catering in Abidjan and to assess the factors likely to favor contamination. An investigation was conducted to determine the practical risk of contamination. A total of 306 samples were collected and analyzed for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and Salmonella according to standard microbiology methods. The most important risk factors were lack of training (96.7%), decontamination (84.0%), cross-contamination of vegetables in contact with fresh chicken or fish (76.7%) and salads that were uncovered and unprotected, thus exposed to the air and at ambient temperature for sale (97.7%). Theprevalence was 100%, 77.8% and 2.6% respectively for Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and Salmonella. The average load of Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli was 4.93 log10 (CFU/g) and 1.89 log10 (CFU/g), respectively. Unsatisfactory microbiological quality samples were 52.3%. The results showed a failure of the sanitary quality in more than half of the products. Raising awareness in all of the workers in the food chain for vegetable salads is thus necessary to protect the health of the consumers.
RAW AND READY-TO-EAT VEGETABLES: MICROBIAL SAFETY EVALUATION
W. Vencia,C. Nogarol,F. Caritti,F. Zuccon
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.2.99
Abstract: The aim of this study was to supply to the shortage of information in microbial criteria in ready-to-eat vegetable products. This paper reports data obtained by analysis carried out with specific Real Time PCR methods to check the presence of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica) in fresh and ready-to-eat green salads. 9.8% of samples positive for at least one pathogen by RealTime PCR, but no viable microorganism was isolated by ISO methods.
A rapid technique for detection of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus from maize grains  [cached]
SANGITKUMAR, MEENA SHEKHAR*, ASHRAF All KHAN and PANKAJ SHARMA
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Twenty-five isolates of Aspergillus flavus isolated from maize grains were tested by cultural method for aflatoxin detection, which is inexpensive and rapid. Four isolates were found highly toxigenic with dark red colour development while 8 were moderately toxigenic and 10 mildly toxigenic, which showed dark pink and light pink colour after treatment, respectively. Among all isolates tested, only three isolates viz. AF14 AF20 and AF25 were found non-toxigenic by ammonia vapour test. Among the media tested, maximum colour change was observed for colonies grown on Yeast Ex1ract Sucrose Agar followed by Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapek Dox Agar. All media tested, favoured the aflatoxin production. The results of Ammonia Vapour Test were in agreement up to 92% with the result of toxin detection by thin layer chromatography. The nontoxic strains of A. flavus are being further evaluated for their efficacy as potential biocontrol agent to reduce mould infection in
Mould In Optical Instruments
Rod D Watkins
Community Eye Health Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Mould can damage optical instruments beyond repair within only a few weeks. There is a good deal of information available on the treatment of mould in buildings, because common respiratory problems and allergic reactions can be caused by mould. Knowledge is also available in the field of conservation of books and fine art because of the high cost of mould damage. However, very little information is available on mould in optical instruments and the management of mould is often ignored by equipment manufacturers and users.
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