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Dysphonic Occupational Syndrome: New Aspects of this Nosological Entity  [cached]
Almeida, Sandra Irene Cubas de,Pontes, Paulo
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Teachers often have vocal disorders that benefit from preventive measures. Objective: To determine the prevalence of the syndrome in dysphonic teachers and check the evolution of this index with the techniques of primary prevention. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study of teachers in two different periods: in the first 101 teachers and participated in phase 2, 148 teachers. These two groups was administered the questionnaire prepared by the tripartite commission on regulation of the professional voice. Results: The prevalence of the syndrome dysphonic in the first phase was 70.3%, while the second stage was 57.59%. Conclusion: 1st dysphonic the prevalence of the syndrome was significantly decreased with the implementation of preventive and medical control of work organization. 2nd dysphonic syndrome is a new nosological entity. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Study series.
OCCUPATIONAL SELF EFFICACY ROLE CONFLICT AND MENTAL HEALTH OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
S.G.JADHAV
Review of Research , 2013,
Abstract: The main purpose of the present study was to study the Occupational Selfefficacy role conflict and Mental Health of school teachers. The sample consisted of 600 primary school teachers selected from Belgaum and Dharwad district of Karnatak state.The objectives of the present study were; i) to study the significant difference in the occupational self efficacy, role conflict and mental health of male and female primary school teachers working in public and private aided schools. ii) To find out the correlation between occupational Self-efficacy and Role Conflict of School Teachers. iii) To find out the correlation between Occupational Self-efficacy and Mental Health of School Teachers.Findings of the study revealed that, i) There is no significant difference in the Occupational Self-efficacy, Role Conflict and Mental Health of both Male and Female Primary School Teachers working in Public and Private aided schools. ii) There is Negative and significant correlation between Occupational Self-efficacy and Role Conflict of Teachers. iii) There is a positive and significant correlation between occupational self-efficacy and Mental Health of School Teachers.
Occupational therapists’ conceptions on mental health care line
Michelle Helena Pereira de Paiva,Heloísa Cristina Figueiredo Frizzo
Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional , 2012,
Abstract: The care line recommended by the Brazilian Health System - SUS must be attained by every professionalof the area, milieu and subject. This study aimed to know the occupational therapists’ conceptions about the lineof care in mental health. The data of this study were obtained from a questionnaire sent via virtual network ofcontacts and snowball technique. Data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Most participantswere professionals from the southeast region of the country with over five years of training. They exercise theprofessional activity mainly in Psychiatric Hospitals, Psychosocial Assistance Centers – CAPS II and MentalHealth Clinics. There was no registry of professional performance in Residential Therapeutic Services – SRTand Outpatient Clinics - UBS. Regarding care line, six participants did not respond and five were unaware of theterm, followed by the psychosocial rehabilitation principles and therapeutic project; only one answer identified care line as a practice based on care management with reception principles and articulation of social networksand services. Results showed that the professionals’ practices are little guided in care line logic; however, thereis the need systematization of the assistance according this logic in order to apply the Psychiatric Reform,searching the quality of life improvement and reestablishment of the citizenship of people with psychologicaldistress insofar as, in addition to optimizing the care network, which promotes comprehensive humane careand social contractualism.
PTSD and trauma in Austria's elderly: influence of wartime experiences, postwar zone of occupation, and life time traumatization on today's mental health status—an interdisciplinary approach
Tobias M. Glück,Ulrich S. Tran,Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.17263
Abstract: Background: While in recent years epidemiological studies on World War (WW) II-related traumatization and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in elderly persons have been conducted for various European countries, for Austria, these numbers are unknown. Objective: The focus of this epidemiologic study was to picture the current mental health status and prevalence of PTSD and lifetime traumatic events in Austria's elderly with respect to WWII and subsequent occupation. Method: In an interdisciplinary approach of psychologists and historians, 316 elderly Austrians (born before 1946) were interviewed for symptoms of PTSD and lifetime traumatization (Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version), current mental health (Brief Symptom Inventory), wartime-related trauma, and traumatic experiences with occupational forces. These factors were also compared regarding the zone of occupation (Allied vs. Soviet). Data were collected between March and September 2010. Results: 97.5% of the sample reported at least one lifetime trauma. War-related traumata were reported by 92.7% and non-war-related traumata by 82.3%; 40.2% experienced traumatic events with occupational forces. PTSD was present in 1.9% of the sample and up to 13.9% taking subthreshold PTSD into account. Both, the presence of symptoms indicative of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD implied weaker current mental health (regarding General Distress: odds ratios up to 25.51; 95% CI = 9.82 to 66.27). Independent of PTSD diagnosis persons from the Soviet occupied zone showed higher levels of Interpersonal Sensitivity, Global Distress, and Phobic Anxiety. Prevalence of PTSD was independent of gender. Conclusions: Our results corroborate findings from other European countries that PTSD is a common disorder in the elderly due to WWII experience and that PTSD and trauma affect mental health even across long periods of time. Postwar distressing conditions also pose a further risk factor for symptomatology and distress in later years.
Contribution of Occupational Therapy to funcional approach in personality disorders  [cached]
Bellido Mainar, J R,Berrueta Maeztu, L M,Ari?ez Merchán, I
TOG : Revista de Terapia Ocupacional de la APGTO , 2004,
Abstract: Personality disorders ( personality disorder F03.675 ) are defined by a rigid pattern of unadapting behaviours that, on the short and medium term generate a significant socio environmental deterioration. The level of psychosocial function or dysfunction is a first class indicator when assessing the extent and assessment of the personality disorder.Psychotherapy ( psychotherapy F04.754 ) intervenes in the psychosocial compounds of this disorder by designing specific programs for the training in psychosocial skills (conductual-dialectic therapy). Occupational Therapy ( occupational therapy E02.831.489 is a health science with a long history in socioenvironmental therapy of mental diseases F04.754.864 ) . The focal point is the assessment of the disease, disorder or social unadaptation impact in the individual's occupation functionality. This science puts forward a wide, integrating concept of functionality, which is divided into three occupation areas: productive occupational area, self maintenance area and leisure time area.In the first part of this paper, the extent and features of the occupational disfunction in the personality disorder are analysed employing the occupational therapy method.Based on our six-year experience, a method for socioenvironmental treatment based on two models of occupational therapy (human occupation model and Canadian model) is suggested in the second part of the paper
Relationship Between Occupational Stress and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in Different Occupation in Hamadan (West of Iran)  [PDF]
Rostam Golmohammadi,Bahrami Abdulrahman
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: To investigate the relation between occupation stress and the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), We selected 123 employees among 3229 people that diagnosed as NIDDM as subject group and also 150 people that has normal blood glucose as control group. First questionnaire was used to report characteristics of each subject and second questionnaire has 55 questions about work condition, job environment and personal feeling. The stress factors in study and control group were 151.8 and 128.1, respectively and a significant difference were seen between two groups (p<0.005). We have not seen any significant difference among occupations but drivers has more occupational stress than other occupations. This research suggested that occupational stress is related to the development of NIDDM and stress related to interpersonal relationship, physical demands and lack of job interest.
Socioeconomic status, job strain and common mental disorders—an ecological (occupational) approach
BongKyoo Choi,Els Clays,Dirk De Bacquer,Robert Karasek
SJWEH Supplements , 2008,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine whether an ecological association exists between job strain and common mental disorders at the occupational level and whether the association is a confounding effect of socioeconomic status. METHODS: Male occupations from Belgium (N=184) and the United States (US) (N=120) were chosen from the BELSTRESS study (Belgian job-stress study) (1994–1998) and quality of employment surveys (1972–1977), respectively. Age, marital status, socioeconomic indicators, job control (skill discretion and decision authority), psychological demands, supervisory and coworker supports, physical demands, job insecurity, and symptom scales for mental disorders were all aggregated at the occupational level (detailed occupational codes). Job strain was defined as a ratio of psychological demands to job control. Simple correlations, graphic investigations, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: While job strain was significantly correlated with socioeconomic indicators in the US sample, their covariance was less than 30% in both samples. In the graphic investigations, job strain was orthogonal to all of the socioeconomic indicators. Job strain (both samples), job control (US sample), skill discretion (Belgian sample), and psychological demands (Belgian sample) were associated with mental disorders, after control for the covariates (including socioeconomic indicators). The association of decision authority with mental disorders was relatively weak in both samples. Generally, the associations were stronger in the low or middle socioeconomic group than in the high socioeconomic group. CONCLUSIONS: Job strain is associated with common mental disorders at the occupational level, and it is not explained fully in the context of the association between socioeconomic status and mental disorders.
The Moderating Effect of Occupation on the Relationship between Anger and Mental Health among Extroverted and Introverted Women  [PDF]
Maryam Safara, Somayeh Keshavarz
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2015.44011
Abstract: This study intends to investigate the moderating effect of occupation on the associations between anger and mental health between introverted and extroverted women. Available sampling was used for collecting the data. Sample consisted of 384 women including 192 employed women and 192 housewives women (Mean age = 31.63). A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for the participants. Instruments in the present study included general health questionnaire (GHQ- 28), aggression as well as the scale that assessed respondents’ introversion and extroversion. Results showed that aggression negatively related to mental health. In contrast, there was positive relation-ship between control wrath and mental health. Meaningly, women with high level of conciliation tended to possess high mental health. Furthermore, occupation didn’t play the moderating role in the associations between anger and mental health between introverted and extroverted women.
Partaking in the global movement for occupational mental health: what challenges and ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa?
Atilola Olayinka
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-6-15
Abstract: There is an ongoing global movement for the entrenchment of occupational mental health as an integral part of occupational health and safety schemes. Aside from being a fundamental human right issue, this move has been demonstrated to be of cost-benefit in terms of workplace productivity and general economic growth. Despite being among the regions most prone to the human and economic repercussions of work-related mental health problems by reason of her socio-economic circumstance; sub-Sahara Africa is yet to fully plug into this movement. With a view to make recommendations on the ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa, this paper examines the current state of and the barriers to effective occupational mental health policy and practice in the region.
Genetic Analysis of Mental Retardation: The Genes and the Means
G.K. Chetan,K.R. Manjunatha,H.N. Venkatesh,S. Balu
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health , 2005,
Abstract: The past few decades have seen a dramatic increase in the field of research in mental retardation. Significant work has been done on the genes involved in the various mental disorders. Cytogenetic assessments of such disorders analyze the association between the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and specific syndromes. Recent techniques include the study of fragile sites, high resolution banding to identify subtle chromosomal aberrations and more recent techniques such as Fluorescent in Situ Hybridisation (FISH). These techniques, in addition to the various other molecular diagnostic assays, are valuable in the diagnosis, prevention and management of mental retardation. In addition, they are useful aids for appropriate Genetic Counselling for the affected and their families. New avenues of Gene therapy are available for treatment of these disorders.
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