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Occurrence, Pathogenicity and Distribution of Fusarium spp. in Stored Wheat Seeds Kermanshah Province, Iran  [PDF]
K. Chehri,B. Salleh,T. Yli-Mattila,M.J. Soleimani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Fusarium is one of the most important pathogenic and toxigenic fungi widely distributed all over the world, including Iran. Fusarium species are found frequently in stored agriculture products especially wheat. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with stored wheat seeds and their pathogenicity on root and head of wheat in Kermanshah, the leading province in wheat production in Iran. In this survey 75 seed samples of stored wheat were collected from 10 different regions during 2006-2008 and tested for the presence of Fusarium. Fusarium spp. were found in 51 (68 %) of 75 samples. A total of 580 Fusarium strains were isolated, identified and preserved. All these strains belong to 20 Fusarium spp. according to morphological characters. Each conidial suspension of selected strains representing all species was evaluated for their pathogenicity on roots and spikes of healthy wheat var. Fallat in the greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were the most pathogenic to wheat’s head. Foot rot assessment revealed that F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum were the most damaging species. Of the Fusarium isolates, F. graminearum was the most prevalent followed by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. This is the first comprehensive report on identity and distribution of Fusarium spp. from stored wheat seeds in Iran while F. nelsonii was reported for the first time from wheat seeds in Iran.
Detec??o e influência de Fusarium spp. na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pepino
Menezes, Vanessa Ocom;Pedroso, Daniele Cardoso;Piveta, Graziela;Muniz, Marlove Fátima Bri?o;Menezes, Nilson Lemos de;Garcia, Danton Camacho;Ethur, Luciana Zago;Santos, Ricardo Feliciano dos;Tunes, Lilian Madruga;
Ciência Rural , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782011005000006
Abstract: this research had the objective of isolate, identifying and select isolates (s) of fusarium spp. in cucumber seeds and checking the influence of this (these) isolate(s) on the physiological quality. three batches were used and treatments utilized consisted in: absolute witness; pda + mannitol - 0.8mpa; pda pure; pda + mannitol - 0.8mpa + fungi; and pda + fungi. the physiological quality was assessed by tests carried out in laboratory and greenhouse. five isolates off fusarium verticillioides were isolated and it was not possible to affirm its transmission through seed. the hydric restriction technique was efficient to provide the infection of cucumber seeds, since this fungus affected the physiological quality of cucumber seeds of this cultivar.
Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  [PDF]
Ning Ling, Wenwen Zhang, Dongsheng Wang, Jiugeng Mao, Qiwei Huang, Shiwei Guo, Qirong Shen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063383
Abstract: Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.
Responses of Maize Landrace Seedlings to Inoculations of Fusarium spp.
Dolores Briones-Reyes, Fernando Castillo-González, Carlos de León-García-de-Alba, Antonio Ramírez-Hernández, Víctor Heber Aguilar-Rincón, José Luis Chávez-Servia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103687
Abstract:
To assess the reaction of maize landrace seedlings to inoculations of Fusarium spp. derived from different geographic origins, inoculations were performed to substrates in which seeds were germinated, and the severity of damage and the degree of resistance and/or tolerance at the seedling stage were later evaluated. In this study, 57 populations of maize were collected in the states of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Guerrero and Estado de Mexico, Mexico, and at same time five sources of Fusarium spp. inoculum were obtained. The maize collection and inocula were then evaluated in a bi-factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Significant differences were observed in the virulence of the isolates from each geographic region (p < 0.01). The inoculum consisting of isolates from Estado de Mexico proved to be the most virulent, whereas the inoculum from the state of Guerrero caused the least amount of damage to maize seedlings. The length of the roots and aerial portions of the seedlings were reduced due to the effect of the pathogen in comparison with seedlings that emerged in the substrate without inocula. The maize populations responded differently to the pathogen depending on its geographic origin, as the maize plants expressed different amounts of damage caused by the various inocula to which they were subjected. No direct relationship was observed between the virulence of the inoculum and the resistance/tolerance to the disease of populations from the same origin; in some cases, such as that of Tlaxcala, pathogens of the same origin caused more damage to maize from that region.
Comparison of Rhizosphere Microorganisms Between Fusarium Wilt Resistant and Susceptible Watermelon
抗感枯萎病西瓜根际微生物比较研究

LEI Juan-Li,SHOU Wei-Song,DONG Wen-Qi,XU Zhi-Hao,
雷娟利
,寿伟松,董文其,徐志豪

微生物学通报 , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper, the number of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere microbial organisms of fusarium wilt resistant and susceptible watermelon under soil culture and soilless substrate culture were was studied by traditional culture methods. The results showed that, the number of rhizoshpere microbial organisms is was significantly higher than non-rhizosphere, and the number is was changed with the stage of watermelon grow, the number is was the lowest in seedling stage and increased with the watermelon grow, and achieved highest at the flowering and fruiting stage, decreased with the watermelon ageing. The fusarium wilt resistant of watermelon is was correspondence with number of rhizosphere bacteria; the number of rhizosphere bacteria of resistant watermelon is was higher than that of susceptible watermelon in each stage under soil culture and soilless culture. The fusarium wilt resistant of watermelon is no correspondence with number of rhizosphere fungi and actinomycete. The number of non-rhizosphere microbial organisms is was changed in a small range in the whole growing stage. The non-rhizosphere bacteria have no significant change in the whole stage under soil culture and increased quickly under soilless substrate culture and decreased at the later stage. The non-rhizosphere fungi and actinomycete reached highest at the later stage under soil culture or soilless substrate culture.
Development of Ice Creams from Soybean Milk and Watermelon Seeds Milk and Evaluation of Their Acceptability and Nourishing Potential
Gita Bisla,Archana,Poornima Verma,Sheel Sharma
Research Journal of Dairy Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjdsci.2011.4.8
Abstract: Soybean and watermelon seeds are rich source of protein as well as minerals mainly iron yet they are not consumed by a large number of populations instead of their nutritional qualities. Guava is a rich source of ascorbic acid. The objective of the present study was to prepare nutritionally enhanced ice creams by the incorporation of soy milk, watermelon seeds milk and guava pulp and evaluation of their acceptability and nourishing potential. Total six different types of ice creams were prepared from soy milk, watermelon seed s milk as whole and their blends with or without addition of guava pulp. At 9-point Hedonic scale products were evaluated for their appearance, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability in which most of the ice creams were liked moderately to very much and one ice cream were most acceptable, i.e., blended milk (50% soy milk and watermelon seed milk) ice cream with guava pulp. The nutritional analysis of most acceptable ice creams indicated that protein and fat value was found to be excellent and iron as well as vitamin C content were also found in good amount in comparison to standard cow s milk ice cream. Thus, these ice creams would be highly nutritious and acceptable by the population.
Effect of antagonistic fungal competition for colonization of roots on pathogenesis of watermelon Fusarium wilt
生防菌根系定殖竞争作用对西瓜枯萎病发病机理的影响

WANG Xiao-hui,ZHANG Guo-yi,ZHANG Peng,WEI Qiao-jie,RAN Wei,SHEN Qi-rong,
王小慧
,张国漪,张鹏,韦巧婕,冉炜,沈其荣

微生物学通报 , 2012,
Abstract: Objective] Watermelon Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a common destructive soil-borne disease. Understanding of the competition between non-pathogenic congeneric Fusarium species and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains has contributed to acquisition of novel bio-control agents and broadening the biological control measures against the plant disease. Methods] Selective media and dilution plating procedure were used to study colonization of bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and plant tissues of watermelon grown in greenhouse pots by non-pathogenic Fusarium verticillioides XA and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum LD. Results] Strains XA and LD were isolated from diseased plant tissues in field. When non-diseased soil was solely inoculated with strain XA or strain LD, inoculation with strain XA had no symptom of wilt and no loss of biomass of watermelon whereas inoculation with strain LD led to heavily symptom of wilt. As compared with the treatment of LD, the treatment of dual inoculation with strains XA and LD increased the fresh weight and dry weight of the aerial part of watermelon plants by 151.2% and 110%, respectively. Strain XA successfully colonized roots but was not found in the basal part of stem of watermelon, while strain LD infected plant tissues and soil with (1.58?4.85)×104 CFU/g. As compared with the treatment of LD inoculation, the dual inoculation with strain XA and strain LD decreased the pathogenic F. oxysporum numbers in the basal part of stem, roots, rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of watermelon by 63.3%, 66.1%, 3.3% and 24.4%, respectively and increased the non-pathogenic F. oxysporum numbers in roots, rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of watermelon to (0.35?3.84)×104 CFU/g; this treatment gained 57.8% of control efficiency against watermelon Fusarium wilt. Conclusion] The non-pathogenic congeneric strain XA effectively reduced the ability of pathogenic F. oxysporum LD to infect watermelon plants and had certain effectiveness as a biocontrol agent against watermelon Fusarium wilt.
Effects of chemical treatments on infestation of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in correlation with technological wheat quality  [PDF]
Bala? Ferenc F.,Bodro?a-Solarov Marija I.,Vu?kovi? Jovana N.,Bagi Ferenc F.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1121079b
Abstract: In this study, the time of infestation by fungi from genus Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. was investigated in different stages of wheat maturity (milk, waxy, and technological maturity); the effects of different fungicides on the yield, technological properties, and content of mycotoxin DON were studied also. The results showed that Alternaria spp. attacked spike and kernel in f lowering and end-f lowering stage, as it was already known for Fusarium species. Fungicide treatment increases the yield up to 20%, test weight by 3.7%, and thousand-kernel weight up to 19.1%. High content of mycotoxin DON, above tolerable limits, was detected only in the treatment with fungicide Caramba and in untreated control.
A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome  [PDF]
Yi Ren, Hong Zhao, Qinghe Kou, Jiao Jiang, Shaogui Guo, Haiying Zhang, Wenju Hou, Xiaohua Zou, Honghe Sun, Guoyi Gong, Amnon Levi, Yong Xu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029453
Abstract: As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ~800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits.
Effect of Fusarium graminearum and infection index on germination and vigor of maize seeds
Galli, Juliana A;Fessel, Simone A;Panizzi, Rita C;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582005000500002
Abstract: pathogens in maize (zea mays) seeds cause serious problems, such as the loss of their capacity to germinative. the objectives of this study were to identify the optimal period for infection of maize seeds on agar colonized by fusarium graminearum, when incubated for 4, 8, 16 and 32 h, and to evaluate the effect of the fungus on the germination and vigor of seeds with different infection levels. after the respective incubation periods, the seeds were removed from the culture medium and submitted to the blotter test for 3 min with and without superficial disinfection with 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite. once the optimal period for seed incubation was identified, seeds from the same sample were again placed on the colonized agar for infection. germination and vigor tests (accelerated aging and cold test) were performed with a mixture of healthy seeds (placed on pda medium) and inoculated seeds, resulting in seeds with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% rates of infection. the results showed that a period of 32 h was long enough to obtain seeds infected by the pathogen. there were no significant effects of fungal infection on seed germination at any of the infection levels, probably due to the high vigor of the maize seed lot tested. regarding vigor tests, infection levels differed significantly from the control (0% infection), but there were no significant differences among the infection levels.
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