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Smoking Prevalence, Willingness to Quit and Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation among University Students in a Western Nigerian State  [cached]
Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde,Olumide Adebayo Omowaye,Damilola Adigun Alawode,Owen Omede
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n7p149
Abstract: Background: In order to increase the proportion of successful attempts to quit smoking, it is important to understand the characteristics of smokers who successfully quit smoking. This study seeks to find out the smoking prevalence, the level of willingness to quit and factors influencing smoking cessation among university students in a western Nigerian state.Methodology: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among young adults in tertiary institutions. A sample size of 300 was determined using Fishers formula while multi stage sampling technique was used to select respondents. The questionnaire was semi-structured, pretested and self administered. Analysis was done using Epi-Info version 3.4.1. Frequency tables and cross-tabulations were generated with a statistical significance p-value pre-determined at less than 0.05. Results: The number of respondents that ever smoked was 66 (22% of the total number of respondents) out of which 25 (38%) have ceased smoking while 41 (62%) currently smoke. Those willing to quit out of the 41 that currently smoke are 16 (39%) while 25 (61.0%) were not willing to quit. Of the respondents that ever smoked, the main location of smoking was parties/clubs (50%), while friends (53%) were found to be the main influence to smoke. Willingness to quit smoking was expressed by 16 (39.0%) of current smokers. Among respondents that ever smoked, 55(83.3%) attempted to quit out of which 41(74.5%) did as a result of health problems. Factors that positively affected smoking cessation were older age group of 26-30 (100%), belief that smoking can lead to premature death (47.1%) and never being asked to quit smoking (68.4%) with statistically significant p values. Conclusion: Influence of friends and going to parties/clubs are major factors contributing to smoking habit. Diagnosis of health problems play a major role in attempts to quit smoking while belief that smoking can lead to premature death is a major factor influencing smoking cessation. Being asked to quit smoking without a good understanding of the attendant health hazards does not contribute positively to successful smoking cessation. Peer education in schools emphasizing knowledge of the health implications of smoking as well as early diagnosis of smoking related health problems will go a long way in encouraging smoking cessation.
Smoking cessation  [cached]
Kaur K,Juneja S,Kaushal S
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication to the use of transdermal patches, gum, lozenges, nasal sprays, and oral inhalers containing nicotine.
Within a smoking-cessation program, what impact does genetic information on lung cancer need to have to demonstrate cost-effectiveness?
Louisa G Gordon, Nicholas G Hirst, Robert P Young, Paul M Brown
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-8-18
Abstract: Two strategies were modelled for a hypothetical cohort of heavy smokers aged 50 years; individuals either received or did not receive a genetic test within the course of a usual smoking-cessation intervention comprising nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and counselling. A Markov model was constructed using evidence from published randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses for estimates on 12-month quit rates and long-term relapse rates. Epidemiological data were used for estimates on lung cancer risk stratified by time since quitting and smoking patterns. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to explore parameter uncertainty.The discounted incremental cost per QALY was AU$34,687 (95% CI $12,483, $87,734) over 35 years. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$20,000 per QALY gained, the genetic testing strategy needs to produce a 12-month quit rate of at least 12.4% or a relapse rate 12% lower than NRT and counselling alone for it to be equally cost-effective. The likelihood that adding a genetic test to the usual smoking-cessation intervention is cost-effective was 20.6% however cost-effectiveness ratios were favourable in certain situations (e.g., applied to men only, a 60 year old cohort).The findings were sensitive to small changes in critical variables such as the 12-month quit rates and relapse rates. As such, the cost-effectiveness of the genetic testing smoking cessation program is uncertain. Further clinical research on smoking-cessation quit and relapse rates following genetic testing is needed to inform its cost-effectiveness.Smoking remains a substantial health problem in many countries and is the largest modifiable risk factor for several cancers and a host of chronic diseases. Between 1980 and 2004, smoking prevalence in the Australian population dropped from 40% to 21% [1] partly due to progressive tobacco control policies such as cigarette taxation, smoke-free workplaces and extensive public education campaigns. However, smokers remain a large proportio
Smoking cessation
Kaur K, Juneja S, Kaushal S
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPAA.S30323
Abstract: Smoking cessation Letter (2831) Total Article Views Authors: Kaur K, Juneja S, Kaushal S Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 21 - 22 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPAA.S30323 Received: 29 January 2012 Accepted: 02 February 2012 Published: 15 March 2012 Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep Kaushal Department of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India With reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication to the use of transdermal patches, gum, lozenges, nasal sprays, and oral inhalers containing nicotine. Post to: Cannotea Citeulike Del.icio.us Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Readers of this article also read: The cognitive impact of anticholinergics: A clinical review Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension Nortriptyline versus fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a six-month, double-blind clinical trial Phase 1 clinical study of the acute and subacute safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response Management of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation and interruptions using model-based simulations Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features
Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania
Frick,Kevin D.; Lynch,Matthew; West,Sheila; Munoz,Beatriz; Mkocha,Harran A.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000200006
Abstract: objective: household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. we tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. methods: we surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central united republic of tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. a random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. findings: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. a proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. a perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. conclusions: as those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level.
Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania  [cached]
Frick Kevin D.,Lynch Matthew,West Sheila,Munoz Beatriz
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: We surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central United Republic of Tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. A random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. Data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. Ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. FINDINGS: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. A proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. Cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. A perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. CONCLUSIONS: As those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level.
Smoking cessation therapy with varenicline  [cached]
Uma M Mohanasundaram,Rajinder Chitkara,Ganesh Krishna
International Journal of COPD , 2008,
Abstract: Uma M Mohanasundaram, Rajinder Chitkara, Ganesh KrishnaDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USAAbstract: Smoking cessation is the only available intervention proven to halt progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors discuss the current existing treatment modalities and the role of a newly approved agent, varenicline, in promotion of smoking cessation. Varenicline is a novel agent that is a centrally acting partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It has both agonistic and antagonistic properties that together are believed to account for reduction of craving and withdrawal as well as blocking the rewarding effects of smoking. Its targeted mechanism of action, better efficacy and tolerability makes varenicline a useful therapeutic option for smoking cessation. In this article, we discuss presently available options for smoking cessation and review the literature on efficacy of varenicline.Keywords: smoking cessation, varenicline, nicotine, receptors, therapy, COPD
Varenicline: For smoking cessation  [PDF]
J Rao,PK Shankar
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v7i2.2714
Abstract: Varenicline, a partial agonist of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is the most recently approved drug for smoking cessation. Despite the availability of effective treatments for smoking cessation, such as nicotine replacement therapy and Bupropion sustained-release, abstinence rates remain less than optimal. As a nAChR partial agonist, Varenicline attenuates the craving and withdrawal symptoms that occur with abstinence from nicotine and also reduces the rewarding effects of nicotine obtained from smoking in patients who lapse. Clinical trials have demonstrated superior efficacy of this drug over Bupropion-SR for achieving abstinence from smoking, and Varenicline has also been shown to significantly delay smoking relapse. As the latest agent approved for smoking cessation, the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of Varenicline has been reviewed in this paper. Key words: α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; Varenicline; smoking cessation; partial agonist. DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v7i2.2714 Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2009) Vol.7, No.2 Issue 26, 162-164
Smoking cessation aids  [cached]
Roopchandani Komal,Singhvi Indrajeet,Kar Mousumi
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2008,
Abstract: Smoking is a practice where a substance, most commonly tobacco as dried or curled leaves is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily done as a recreational activity. But, owing to the chemicals present in tobacco, it slowly becomes addictive in nature. Few smokers use effective smoking cessation aids when trying to stop smoking. Smoking is the most important single cause of morbidity and mortality in under developed, developing and developed countries. Because smoking prevention will not affect tobacco-related mortality, quitting by current smokers is the main way to achieve positive effects on mortality. Many smokers are interested in quitting. Most of the smokers try to quit smoking at least once in their lifetime. To support smokers in their quit attempts, a wide range of smoking cessation aids is available. These comprise methods and products to assist smokers in quitting through coping with psychological or physical aspects of nicotine dependence. Meta-analyses have shown that smoking cessation courses, nicotine replacement therapy, and bupropion can significantly increase success rates in quitting. Even minimal interventions such as self-help materials have a small effect when compared with no intervention.
Smoking cessation and COPD  [cached]
Philip T?nnesen
European Respiratory Review , 2013,
Abstract: The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5–10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.
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