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The Rhizosphere of Coffea Arabica in Its Native Highland Forests of Ethiopia Provides a Niche for a Distinguished Diversity of Trichoderma  [PDF]
Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw,Christian P. Kubicek,Irina S. Druzhinina
Diversity , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/d2040527
Abstract: The southwestern highlands forests of Ethiopia are the origin of the coffee plant Coffea arabica. The production of coffee in this area is affected by tracheomycosis caused by a soil-born fungus Gibberella xylarioides. The use of endemic antagonistic strains of mycoparasitic Trichoderma species would be a nature conserving means to combat this disease. We have used molecular methods to reveal that the community of Trichoderma in the rhizosphere of C. arabica in its native forests is highly diverse and includes many putatively endemic species. Among others, the putative new species were particularly efficient to inhibit growth of G. xylarioides.
Coffee biotechnology
De Los Santos-Briones, César;Hernández-Sotomayor, S. M. Teresa;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202006000100015
Abstract: in the last three decades, interest has turned to in vitro cell culture in different areas of coffee research. in vitro techniques have been applied not only for coffee improvement through genetic transformation but also to study various aspects in coffee cells such as chemical (caffeine synthesis and the production of coffee aroma), physiological and more recently, biochemical aspects. the most important advances obtained to date on in vitro coffee techniques in fields like biochemistry, physiology, regeneration systems and genetic engineering, are presented and discussed.
Factors affecting density of airborne Gibberella zeae inoculum
Del Ponte, Emerson M.;Fernandes, José Maurício C.;Pierobom, Carlos R.;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582005000100009
Abstract: fusarium head blight (fhb) is a disease of increasing concern in the production of wheat (triticum aestivum). this work studied some of the factors affecting the density of airborne gibberella zeae inoculum. spore samplers were placed at the edge of a field in order to observe spore deposition over a period of 45 days and nights in september and october, the period that coincides with wheat flowering. gibberella zeae colonies were counted for each period and values transformed to relative density. a stepwise regression procedure was used to identify weather variables helpful in predicting spore cloud density. in general, a predominant night-time spore deposition was observed. precipitation and daily mean relative humidity over 90% were the factors most hightly associated with peak events of spores in the air. models for predicting spore cloud density simulated reasonably well with the fluctuation of airborne propagules during both night and day, with potential to be integrated into an fhb risk model framework.
Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds
咖啡种子中的内生真菌

Fernando E VEGA,Francisco POSADA,M Catherine AIME,Stephen W PETERSON,Stephen A REHNER,
Fernando E. VEGA
,Francisco POSADA,M. Catherine AIME,Stephen W. PETERSON,Stephen A. REHNER

微生物学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Stions of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing. Several fungal genera were isolated, including Acremonium, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Gibberella, Penicillium, Pseudozyma and an undescribed clavicipitaceous species. The biological activities that these fungi might be playing in coffee seeds remain unknown, but in other plants some of the genera isolated have been reported to protect against plant pathogens.
Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds
咖啡种子中的内生真菌

Fernando EVEGA,Francisco POSADA,M Catherine AIME,Stephen WPETERSON,Stephen AREHNER,
Fernando E. VEGA
,Francisco POSADA,M. Catherine AIME,Stephen W. PETERSON,Stephen A. REHNER

菌物学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Stions of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing. Several fungal genera were isolated, including Acremonium, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Gibberella, Penicillium,Pseudozyma and an undescribed clavicipitaceous species. The biological activities that these fungi might be playing in coffee seeds remain unknown, but in other plants some of the genera isolated have been reported to protect against plant pathogens.
Coffee carbohydrates
Redgwell, Robert;Fischer, Monica;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202006000100012
Abstract: this review summarises recent advances in the chemistry, physiology and molecular properties of coffee carbohydrates with a particular focus on the cell wall polysaccharides. the results of detailed chemical studies have demonstrated novel structural features of both the galactomannans and the arabinogalactan polysaccharides of the green and roasted coffee bean. for the first time immunological probes based on monoclonal antibodies for specific polysaccharide epitopes were used to reveal the patterns of distribution of the galactomannans, arabinogalactans and pectic polysaccharides in the coffee bean cell wall. finally, the results of physiological and molecular studies are presented which emphasise the growing awareness of the potential role the metabolic status of the green bean may play in final coffee beverage quality.
Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenweber, the new parasitical fungus on rice in the Republic of Macedonia  [PDF]
Karov Ilija K.,Mitrev Sa?a K.,Kostadinovska Emilija D.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0916175k
Abstract: The recent observation of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenworth (teleomorph) (anamorf: Fusarium moniliforme Sheld.) Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg (anamorph), F. moniliforme J. Sheld. (synonym), the causal agent of Bakanae disease in rice fields, provides an opportunity to observe the characteristics of the pathogen and the possibility of prevention in Kocani area. Plant material with Gibberella fujikuroi symptoms was collected from rice (Oryza sativa) over the period of 3 years (from 2006 to 2008). Within this study, the presence and damage caused by this pathogenic fungus were confirmed. The objective of this study was a continuous field observation of symptoms in order to establish the percentage of infection and use of laboratory methods for proper protection.
Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee  [PDF]
Alexander Yashin,Yakov Yashin,Jing Yuan Wang,Boris Nemzer
Antioxidants , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/antiox2040230
Abstract: This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.
Gibberella intermedia the pathogen of St. John's Wort, coneflower and marshmallow in Serbia  [PDF]
Pavlovi? Sne?ana ?.,Stoj?in Vera B.,Stojanovi? Sa?a D.,Starovi? Mira S.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0916191p
Abstract: Gibberella intermedia (Kuhlmann) Samuels et al. (anamorf: Fusarium proliferatum /Matsushima/ Nirenberg) was isolated from seeds of St. John's wort, marshmallow, and coneflower, as well as from roots and stalks of marshmallow and roots of coneflower. These plants had symptoms of leaf chlorosis, malformation, withering and plant dwarfing and were collected from several localities in Serbia during five-year investigations of mycopopulations of the mentioned plants. The morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described.
Cytogenetics of coffee
Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A. F.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202006000100004
Abstract: the genus coffea l. has around 100 native species distributed in tropical and subtropical areas in africa, and the most important economic species are c. arabica and c. canephora. c. arabica is exceptional in the genus since it is the only species so far analyzed which is self-compatible, and a natural polyploid with 2n=4x=44 chromosomes; it is considered to be a segmental allopolyploid because it presents a disomic inheritance and a regular meiotic behavior. all other species in the genus are self-incompatible diploids with 2n=2x=22. cytogenetic studies in coffea, undertaken since 1912, have followed various phases: initial studies were limited only to establishing chromosome counts. subsequent studies characterized the karyotypes of various species using conventional cytological techniques. as the somatic metaphase chromosomes of coffee are very small (1 - 3 μm) and morphologically symmetrical, these studies resulted in uniform karyotypes that show almost no differences among species. since genetic improvement of coffee trees has progressed mainly by means of interspecific hybridizations involving wild species, analyses of microsporogenesis in species and hybrids were needed to establish their genetic affinity and relationships. the first successful attempts to differentiate coffee chromosomes longitudinally were made by mapping pachytene chromomeric patterns and by c and nor banding techniques. from 1998 onwards, the use of banding techniques with the fluorochromes dapi and cma3, and also the cytomolecular technique fish using rdna probes, has increased the longitudinal differentiation of coffee chromosomes. the use of the gish technique with total genomic dna has revealed the parental species that originated c. arabica species.
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